An investigation about the natural gas consumption in some bioclimatic indices, Zanjan City

Document Type : Full length article


1 Professor of Climatology- University of Zanjan, Iran

2 MSc in Applied Climatology, University of Zanjan, Iran


Climatic comfort and adaptation with weather conditions is very important for human wellbeing. In fact, climatic comfort is a situation in which about 80% of people do feel neither cold nor warm. Temperature comfort is related to temperature balance of human body. The temperature balance is due to biological, spiritual and environmental facts which could control a complicated process of heat transfer between human body and the environment. Climate conditions are one of most important factors which could cause human comforts as well as human health. Climate conditions can also affect life quality, mental power and thinking ability. Accordingly, the potential of human activity is increased due to proper environment, and it is decreased due to hot or cold conditions. Inter-annual variation of weather can influence climatic comfort. In winter, especially in cold regions, natural gas is an important energy source to achieve climatic comforts. The climatic comfort which is due to climatic elements such as temperature, radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed is investigated by international and Iranian experts.       
Materials and Methods
In an effort to investigate the effects of climate on the amount of natural gas consumption, we gathered the daily data of climate elements which might affect the temperature comfort, e.g. temperature in degree Celsius, relative humidity in percent, wind speed in meters per second, and sunshine hours, for Zanjan station over a 35 years period (from 21 March 1980 to 21 march, 2016). These data have been gathered from Islamic Republic Meteorological Organization (IRMO). The data of daily consumption of natural gas (in cubic meters) have also been gathered from Gas Department of Zanjan. We have also used MATLAB software in order to organize and test accuracy and homogeneity of the data and also to describe their characters. We have also used Novell, Terjong, and Olegy and SET, PET and PMV indices in graphic forms.
Results and Discussion
Bioclimatic condition of Zanjan is evaluated by Novell index, Terjong, and Olegy plots and the Ryman model indices, e.g. Standard Effective Temperature, Physiological Equivalent Temperature, and Predicted Mean Vote. We have compared all the above-mentioned methods and also their relationship with natural gas consumption. Accordingly, type of Zanjan climate is diagnosed and the comfort and uncomforted situation in daily and hourly scales was calculated. The results of these evaluations are represented in graphic display.  
Climatic situation of Zanjan city, especially in terms of elevation and latitude, shows a cold climate. As a result, in order to find the climatic comfort zone, it is essential to use natural gas. We have examined all bioclimatic situations by using all climatic indices and climatic graphs. All indices have indicated that the natural gas consumption is related to weather variation. It also revealed that Standard Effective Temperature is the best index to show this relation relative to other indices.
According to Novell index for Zanjan city, July is the warmest month in the year. As there is no need for natural gas to reach the comfort condition, the average of natural gas consumption is the lowest in comparison with other months of the year. According to Olegy diagram, Zanjan experiences its warmest and coldest months in Tir (June) and Day (January), respectively. The consumption of natural gas revealed that the highest and lowest consumption of natural gas occur in January and July, respectively.
According to the heat sensitivity based on PET, PMV, and SET indices, we have calculated natural gas consumption. It is cleared that the natural gas consumption is in accordance to these indices. The more detailed study and an accurate cooperation between time series of each of the indices and that of natural gas consumption have indicated that Standard Effective Temperature (SET) is the most accurate comfort index in comparison with other indicators.  
According to our achievements, the building design process accustomed to the climate not only could produce an environmental adoption, but it could reduce energy consumption. As we have found in current study, the climate plays an effective role in energy consumption in Zanjan city. This could lead to an accustomed building design.
The index Standard Effective Temperature was used to predict natural gas consumption for Zanjan city. It was found that the less the values of the index the more the consumption of natural gas. Accordingly, for each unit reduction in the index, the natural gas consumption in the city will increase by 63100.                            


Main Subjects

اخترکاوان، م. (1390). تنظیم شرایط همساز با بوم و اقلیم ایران، تهران: کلهر.
انتظاری، ع.؛ رضایی، ح.؛ سلطانی، م. و حاج محمدی، ح. (1391). نگرشی بر ارزیابی آسایش انسانی در شهر کاشمر با توجه به شاخص‏های زیست‏‏اقلیمی، اولین همایش ملی گردشگری و طبیعت‏‏گردی ایران‏‏زمین، ص1ـ10.
انصاری لاری، ا. و زارعی کلوئی، ه. (1393). نگرشی بر ارزیابی آسایش انسانی در شهرستان میناب دهستان تیاب با توجه به شاخص‏های زیست‏‏اقلیمی، فصل‏نامة جغرافیای طبیعی، 7(25): 1ـ12.
بریمانی، ف. و اسماعیل نژاد، م.(1390). بررسی شاخص‌های زیست‌اقلیمی مؤثر بر تعیین فصل گردشگری، مجلۀ جغرافیا و توسعه، 23: 27ـ46.
جلالی، ط.؛ زینالی، ب. (1389). تعیین تقویم زمانی مناسب برای گردشگری در شهرستان پیرانشهر با استفاده از شاخص PMV و PET، دومین همایش ملی جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، رویکرد آمایشی و مدیریت محیط، ص 12.
حیدری، ش. (1393). سازگاری حرارتی در معماری نخستین گام در صرفه‏جویی مصرف انرژی، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
خوشحال، ج.؛ غازی، ا. و آروین، ع. (1385). استفاده از گروه‏بندی خوشه‏ای در پهنه‏بندی زیست‏اقلیم انسانی (مطالعة موردی: استان اصفهان)، مجلۀ پژوهشی دانشگاه اصفهان، علوم انسانی، 20(1): 171ـ186.
ذوالفقاری، ح. (1386). تعیین تقویم زمانی مناسب برای گردش در تبریز با استفاده از شاخص‏های دمای معادل فیزیولوژی (PET) و متوسط نظرسنجی پیش‏بینی‏شده (PMV)، پژوهش‏های جغرافیایی، 62: 129ـ141.
ذوالفقاری، ح. (1392). آب‏وهواشناسی توریسم، چ3، تهران: انتشارات سمت.
رازجویان، م. (1367). آسایش به وسیلۀ معماری همساز با اقلیم، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.
ساری صراف، ب. و محمدی، غ. (1389). تعیین مناسب‌ترین شاخص Rayman برای مطالعۀ اقلیم‌شناسی در شمال استان آذربایجان، چهاردهمین کنفرانس ژئوفیزیک ایران، تهران، ص 57ـ64.
صادقی روش، م.ح. (1389). ارزیابی ضرایب زیست‏‏اقلیمی مؤثر در آسایش انسان (مطالعة موردی: شهر یزد)، فصل‏نامة جغرافیای طبیعی، 3(10): 1ـ16.
عساکره، ح‏. (1390). مبانی اقلیم‏شناسی آماری، چ2، زنجان: انتشارات دانشگاه زنجان.
عطایی، ه. و هاشمی‏نسب، س. (1391). ارزیابی تطبیقی زیست‏اقلیم انسانی شهر اصفهان با استفاده از روش‏های ترجونگ، TCI، PET، PMV، مطالعات و پژوهش‏های شهری و منطقه‏ای، 4(14): 63ـ82.
قبادیان، و. و مهدوی، ف. (1372). طراحی اقلیمی، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
قنبری، ع.؛ عفیفی، م.ا. و صادقی، غ. (1389). نگرشی بر ارزیابی آسایش انسانی در شهر لار با توجه به شاخص‏های زیست‏‏اقلیمی، فصل‏نامة جغرافیایی طبیعی، 3(10): 1ـ17.
قویدل‏ رحیمی، ی. و احمدی، م. (1392). برآورد و تحلیل زمانی آسایش اقلیمی شهر تبریز، جغرافیا و توسعه، 33: 173ـ182.
Atayi, H. and HashemiNasab, S. (2012). Comparative evaluation of human bioclimatic in Isfahan city using the methods of Terjung, TCI, PET, PMV, Urban and Regional Studies and Researches, 4(14): 63-82.
Ansari Lari, A. and Zareie Kalooie, H. (2014). Approach to assessing human comfort with respect to bioclimatological indicators in Tiab village near Minab city, Journal of physical Geography, 7(25): 1-12.
AkhtarKavan, M. (2011). Adjusting harmonious conditions with the ecological and climatic conditions of Iran, Tehran: Kalhor Press.
Asakareh, H. (2011). Fundamentals of statistical climatology, 2nd ed. Zanjan. Publisher: Zanjan university.
Bouden, C. and Ghrab N. (2005). An adaptive thermal comfort model for the Tunisiancontext: A field study result, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 37.
Deb, Ch. and Ramachandraiah, A. (2010). Evaluation of thermal comfort in a rail terminal location in India, Building and Environment, 45: 2571-2580.
Entezari, A.; Rezaei, H.; Soltani, M. and HajMohammadi, H. (2012). Approach to assessing human comfort with respect to bioclimatological indicators in Kashmar city, First National Conference on Tourism and nature of Iran, 1-10.
Ghavidel Rahimi, Y. and Ahmadi, M. (2013). The estimated time analysis of climatic comfort in Tabriz, Geography and Development, 33: 173-182.
Ghobadian, V. and Mahdavi, F. (1993). Climatic design, Tehran University Press.
Ghanbari, A.; Afifi, M.A. and Sadeghi, GH. (2010). Approach to assessing human comfort with respect to bioclimatological indicators in Lar city, Journal of physical Geography, 33(10): 1-17.
Heidari, SH. (2014). Thermal compatibility in architecture first step in saving energy, Tehran: Tehran University Press.
Jalali, T. and Zaynaly, B. (2010). “Determining appropriated timeline for turism in Piranshahr city using PMV and PET indicators”. 2nd conference of national geography and urban planning. Preperation approach and environment managing. P12.
Kalkstein, L.S.; Tan, G. and Skindlov, J.A. (1987). An evaluation of three clustering procedures for use in synoptic climatological classification, Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 26: 717-730.
Khoshhal, J.; ghazi, A. and Arvin, A. (2006). The use of cluster grouping in the human related bioclimatic zoning in Isfahan, Isfahan University Research Journal, 20: 171-186.
Matzarakis, A.; Mayer, H. and Iziomon, H. (1999). Applications of a universal thermal index: physiological equivalent temperature, Int. J. Biometeor., 43: 76-84.
Matzarakis, A. (2001) .Climate and Bioclimatic Information for the Tourism in Greece. Proceedings of the  International workshop on climate, tourism and recreation. International society of biometeorology, commission on climate Developments in Tourism Climatology, pp171-183.
Narimany, F. and Esmailnejad, M.(2011). Checking effective bio-climatological indicators on determination of turism season. geography and development. vol 23. pp 27-46
Novell, B. (1981). A simple design method for shading devices and passive cooling strategies based on monthly average temperature, In proc, Of International passive and hybrid cooling conference, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 392-396.
Razjooyan, M. (1988). Comfort by architecture in harmony with climate, Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University Press.
Givoni, B. (1969). Man, Climate and architeure, John, willy usa.
Gonzalez, R.R.; Nishi, Y. and Gagge, A.P. (1974). Experimental Evaluation of standard Effective Temperature by a New Bio meteorological Index of Man is Thermal Discomfort , Int. j. Biometeor, 18(1): 1-15.
Sadeghi ravesh, M.H. (2010). Evaluation of bioclimatic factors affecting human comfort. Case Study: Yazd City, Journal of physical Geography, 3(10): 1-16.
Sary sarraf, B. and Mohammady, Gh. (2010). Determination of the most appropriated Rayman indicator for studing climatology in north of west Azarbayejan county. 14th conference of Iran geophysics. Tehran. pp 57-64
Toy, S.; Yilmaz S. and Yilmaz H. (2007). Determination of bioclimatic comfort in three different land uses in the city of Erzurum, Turkey, Building and Environment, Vol. 42.
Thorsson, SV. Martina, M. and lindqvist, S. (2004). Thermal bioclimatic conditions and patterns of behavior in an urban park in Goteborg, Sweden. Internation journal of biometeorogy, 48:pp.149-156.
Zolfaghari, H. (2007). Determining appropriate time for tourism in Tabriz using physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and predicted mean vote (PMV) indicators, Geographical Researches, 62: 129-141.
Zolfaghari, H. (2013). Tourism Climatology, Third edition, Tehran: Samt Press.