Coastal Features and Settlement Geomorphic Rules (Case study: Northern Coast of Persian Gulf)

Document Type : Full length article


1 PhD Candidate in Physical Geography, Faculty of Geography and Planning, University of Isfahan, Iran

2 Professor of Physical Geography, Faculty of Geography and Planning, University of Isfahan, Iran

3 Associate Professor of RS & GIS, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Yazd, Iran


Thesettlement space has certain logic and rules. The Persian Gulf was 70 meters higher than today sea level. The result of this uplift is the coastal plains which in phenomenological term is called marine context. It is important for a geomorphologist to understand the geomorphological analysis of the rules of the residence in marine context. This study attempted to raise new concepts in geomorphology based on discourse analysis and a phenomenological interpretation to derive the mathematical logic of residence on the shores of the Persian Gulf. The results obtained by this method show that urban residence in the marine context of Khuzestan follow Bifurcation rule, rural residence in the marine context of Khuzestan follow meandering convex rule, and the coastal residence in the marine context of Bushehr - Bandar Abbas follow frequency.
Materials and methods 
The data used in this study includes five factors of climate, temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, pressure and evaporation to prepare land context, data from Delaware, GPCC and NCEP / NCAR of global networks. These were processed in programming environment. For homogeneity of spatial resolution, conventional method of resampling was used. The output of this operation was matrices with monthly intervals and 0.5 × 0.5 separation of geographic latitude. After preparing the data, they were descaled and then standardized layers were prepared using linear relation. The next step was preparation of the results of the matrix difference in ArcMap; raster analysis was conducted by combining layers to obtain the final map. After recognition of two distinct texture using Hillier’s Space Syntax, analysis of urban layout and the arrangement of drainage networks of Karkheh and Karun rivers were extracted to determine the extent of rural civilization. The village layout was determined using river meanders. In the second image, the layout logic of coastal population centers was specified with coastal terraces 5, 10, 25 and 50 meters and the logical arrangement of this population were assessed against them.  
Results and discussion
The logic syntax in marine context is associated with sea water level changes in the Persian Gulf and Karkheh and Karun rivers. To explain and extract the syntax logic of residence centers on the marine context, we initially specified the networks of Karun and Karkheh rivers, based on Hillier’s syntax logic. In addition, the organization was compared with residence centers. This comparison showed that urban areas are located only in places where rivers have split. To analyze the behavior of the river in connection with rural residence, meanders of Karkheh and Karun rivers were identified. By contrasting rural residence, it was attempted to explain the space identity of each village location with regard to the fluvial meanders. The results showed that the villages in the marine context are settled along the slopes of meanders convexity. The concavities of the rivers have no remnants of residence. To achieve the coastal context syntax logic, the relationship between population centers and coastal terraces were examined through matching the residence spot layers and marine terraces.
The analysis of terraces 5, 10, 25 and 50 meters has indicated that there is a specific relationship between the number of population centers and their population with the distance of the terraces to the coastline and their arrangement along the marine terraces. As the distance of the population centers from the beach are changed largely in number and size; in other words, spatial syntax logic is consistent with Newton's law of gravity inverse.
From the discussion provided, it can be concluded that marine Context defines the syntax rules of settlements and the mathematical rules of layout logic in the area of Iran.
* The first mathematical rule states that marine areas impose Bifurcation rule on river behaviors (Karkheh and Karun). This indicates that urban residence is formed in the division spot.
* The second identifying rule of rivers in marine area is known as river meander which starts to meandering as they enter into marine context. Each wave has a convex side and a concave side. The convex face of wave creates a special place identity that leads to a social organization.
* The results of marine context indicate another rule for the logic of residence centers’ layout that can be summarized as the frequency- magnitude rule.


Main Subjects

پورمند، ح.؛ محمودی، ه. و رنج‏آزمای آذری، م. (1389). مفهوم مکان و تصویر ذهنی و مراتب آن در شهرسازی از دیدگاه کریستین نوربری شولتز در رویکرد پدیدارشناسی، نشریة مدیریت شهری، 8(۲۶): ۷۹ـ 92.
جعفریان، ر. (۱۳۹۱). اطلس شیعه، سازمان جغرافیایی نیروهای مسلح، تهران.
جهاد سازندگی بوشهر (1375). طرح اسکان عشایر بوشکان، بخش خاک‏شناسی.
دلسوز، س.؛ محمودی، ط.؛ رامشت، م.ح. و انتظاری، م. (1393). مفهوم زمان و تکنیک‏های پیش‏بینی مخاطرات طبیعی، دانش مخاطرات، 1(۱): ۹۷ـ 109.
رامشت، م.ح. (1380). دریاچه‏های دوران چهارم بستر تبلور و گسترش مدنیت در ایران، تحقیقات جغرافیایی، 16(۱): ۹۰ـ 111.
ریکور، پ. و دهشیری، ض. (1378). پدیدارشناسی و هرمنوتیک، مجلة نامة فلسفه، 5: ۲۴ـ56.
صالحی‏زاده، ع. (1390). درآمدی بر تحلیل گفتمان میشل فوکو روش‏های تحقیق کیفی، مجلة معرفت فرهنگی اجتماعی، ۲(۷): ۱۱۳ـ142.
مسعودی‏نژاد، ر. (1386). مقدمهای بر تئوری Space Syntax، دانشکدة معماری دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران.
مرکز آمار ایران (1390). سال‏نامة آماری ایران،
Batty, M. (2017). Space Syntax and Spatial Interaction: Comparisons, Integrations, Applications, CASA, University College London, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4TJ, UK, pp. 1-33.
Caryl, E. (2014). Holocene Cold Spells Brought Drought and Famine… Sea Levels Were Often Much Higher Than Today- A Short History of the Human Race the Climb Out of the Ice Age, Part 2,
Douglas, J.; Kennett, J. and Kennett, P. (2006). Early State Formation in Southern Mesopotamia: Sea Levels, Shorelines, and Climate Change, California, USA, Journal of Island & Coastal Archaeology, 1: 67-99.
Delsoz, S.; Mahmoudi, T.; Ramesht, M.H. and Entezari, M. (2014).  Concept of time and forecasting techniques of natural hazards, Hazards Science, 1(1): 97-109.
El-Sheimy, N.; Valeo, C. and Habib, A. (2005). Digital Terrain Modeling: Acquisition, Manipulation and Applications, Boston, Landan.
Heyvaert, V.M.A. and Baeteman, C. (2007). Holocene sedimentary evolution and palaeocoastlines of the Lower Khuzestan plain (southwest Iran), Marine Geology, 242: 83-108.
Hillier, B. (2007). Space is the machine, Cambridge University Press.
Hillier, B. and Hanson, J. (1984). The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Jafarian, R. (2012). Atlas Shiite, National Geography Organization of Iran, Tehran.
Jihad of Construction Bushehr (1996). Project Nomads Bushkan, Soil section.
Kennett, Douglas J., Kennett, James P. (2006), Early State Formation in Southern Mesopotamia: Sea Levels, Shorelines, and Climate Change, The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, Volume 1, Issue 1, PP 67-99.
Lambeck, K. (1996). Shoreline reconstructions for the Persian Gulf since the last glacial maximum, Australia Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 142: 43-57.
‏‏‏‏‏Masoudinezhad, R. (2007). Introduction to the Theory of Space Syntax, Faculty Architecture
Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran.
Pourmand, H.; Mahmodi, H. and Ranj Azma Azari, M. (2011). The meaning of "place" and "subjective imagination" in urban studies from the perspective of christen Schultz in phenomenological approach, Urban Management, 26: 79-92.
Purser, B.H. (1973). The Persian Gulf-Holocene Carbonate Sedimentation and Diagenesis in a Shallow Epicontinental Sea, Springer-Verlag, New York, Heidelberg· Berlin.
Ramesht, M.H. (2001). Quaternary Lakebeds: Landmarks in Iranian Civilization, Geographical Researches, 16(1): 90-111.
Ricœur, P. and Dehshiri, Z. (1998). Phenomenology and hermeneutics, Philosophy, 5: 24-56.
Rose, J.I. (2010). New Light on Human Prehistory in the Persian Gulf Oasis, Current Anthropology, 51(6): 849-883.
Salehizadeh, A. (2011). Introduction to Michel Foucault Discourse Analysis, qualitative research methods, Ma'rifat-i Farhangi Ejtemaii, 2(3): 113-142.
Statistical Center of Iran (2011). Iran Statistical Yearbook,
Suplee, C. (1998). Untangling the Science of Climate, National Geographic, Journal of the National Geographic Society, Washington DC, 193(5): 44-71.
Volume 50, Issue 3
October 2018
Pages 407-423
  • Receive Date: 19 June 2017
  • Revise Date: 11 January 2018
  • Accept Date: 08 February 2018
  • First Publish Date: 23 September 2018