Damavand, Anticyclone of the Heraz Basin

Document Type : Full length article


1 university of khurazmi

2 Faculty of Geography and Planning, University of Isfahan

3 Professor, Department of Physical Geography, University of Wurzburg

4 university of kharazmi -faculty of geography

5 University of Tehran- Faculty of Geography

6 university of tehran


Phenomenologists believe that in nature there is a dual structure that depends on each other intrinsically, one is a structure that is objectively visible to any observer, and second the complex and interconnected structures that are not exposed to tangible objectivity. Geomorphology, based on the phenomenological view, also tries to understand non-tangible structures.Damavand Peak is a Quaternary volcanic phenomenon with an altitude of 5671 meters in the middle of Alborz sedimentary ridge. This phenomenon has changed the overall structure of the region and imposed certain changes on the whole Alborz region. Damavand has a different structure compared to other volcanoes, such as Sahand, Bazman and Kilimanjaro, and does not follow the radial form. It has the shape of the Owl's Eye . The main goal in this paper, is to clear the effects of structure on the behavior of the Haraz River and emphasize to spatial memory, energy distribution pattern and the changes of river flow.

Materials and Methods
The variables used in this research are mostly those of defining the structural pattern of the region. These variables are classified into three groups, linear, point and superficial, often defining-geometric patterns are considered in geomorphology. The variables analyzed here are i) the linear variables comprising fault lines, drainage networks, ii) the surface variables including the erosional surfaces along the Hazard River and iii) the points variables constituting the villages and peaks. All analyzes are based on satellite images and 30-meter DEM of Iran and the accuracy of these analyzes has been checked with field visiting (15 times). All of these information is presented in the framework of the phenomenological method, relying on the chaos theory, and the concepts of behavior geomorphology.
Discussion and results
The special structure of Damavand and its activity, have been reflected on structure of region, behavior of Haraz River, capture river, and defined a new space identity.

How Damavand has changed the structure of region
A: Changes in the fault systems
Generally, structural patterns in the Alborz region have been influenced by fault activity. Damavand volcano as a new plutonic activity has changed the tectonic structure and plays a decisive role in structure of this region. Comparing the tectonic structure of region (without volcano's activity) with the current structure (after volcano's activity) revealed the new structure created by Damavand is considered as a turbulence in the general structure.
B: Expand area of Haraz River basin
As shown in figure (3), there are three fault systems in the area. By evaluating and measuring the northern fault systems, the length of all this fault was 15 to 45 km, except that of Haraz with length reaching to 104 Km . This indicates that Damavand's activities have caused such a change in the area of draining basin.

In other words, the Haraz River basin was much smaller, and after the volcanic activity its basin has increased sharply and all branches of the river that have already flown south (Tehran) have been redirected to the north.
C: change the pattern of draining system
Investigating the drainage network in the area shows that the structure of the drainage network in Damavand has different patterns with other adjoining areas. As you can see, there are two distinct patterns in this area, one dendritic pattern and another spiral pattern . Changing draining patterns with Damavand volcanic activity is routine, but the Damavan rotational form is a special feature that separates it from other volcanoes such as Kilimanjaro, Bazman and Sahand. Because almost all of them have a radial form and Damavand has a structure Owl's eye model with a clockwise movement. This form has caused many processes to change and has had important effects on the distribution of energy and matter, especially in the Haraz River.
D: How Damavand have changed behavior of Haraz River
The sediments of these lakes now are at higher elevation than the current level of rivers in the areas of Nandel, Baijan, Gazeneh, Lasem and Lar. The excavation started in the Lagos valley from mid-December 2017, confirming the depth of sediment, more than 100 meters, and this indicating the depth of the lakes. This process has made the river function as a continuous and normal flow is converted into a cascade stream
E: change the space identity
After overflow and breaking the lakes, along the banks of the rivers, sedimentary beds have been leftover and created numerous villages on them. This phenomenon in Iran means the change of space identity, because in the mountains of Iran, villages take their space identity from the Water-Ice Equilibrium line (WIEL).
If we call geomorphology as a knowledge of land forms and analysis of patterns, we can claim that the Damavand volcano is different from the other volcanoes like Kilimanjaro, Sahand, Sabalan, and Bazman, and this difference is related to its chaotic structure. Damavand volcano have been affected on the environmental processes, such as the distribution of energy, matter and Haraz river behavior, and the main aim of this paper is to explain this. Although the patterns of the formal structure in Albourz Mountain are more influenced by the faults, the structure of the Damavand formative have completely confused the tectonic structures and changed the rule of formative system and behavior of Haraz River. The influence of structure in a variety of dimensions, such as the distribution of energy and matter on the region, river capture and river behavior, river basin expanding and sequences sediment has been able to create general space identity of this region. This article is the result of a studying in sabbatical leave at the University of Wurzburg based on the principles of phenomenology and the results is obtained show that:
*The Damavand form has followed the structure of the Owl's eye model and created a land-cyclone.
*Damavand has changed the patterns of distribution of energy and matter in this region, created a river capture and expanded the Haraz river network.
*The structure of the owl's eye of Damavand Has been created a special space identity in this region.
Key words: chaos theory, Structuralism, Spatial identity, Haraz River, Damavand cone


احمدی، ط. (1398). بازسازی مورفوژنتیک پادگانه‏های درة هراز و تأثیرات آنتروپوژنیک آن (از پلور تا نوررود)، رسالة دکتری، دانشگاه خوارزمی.
باشکوه، ب. (1381). دگرسانی گرمایی در شرق یخچال یخار و جایگاه آن در تاریخچه تکوین آتش‏فشان دماوند، پایان‏نامة کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدة علوم، گروه زمین‏شناسی، دانشگاه تهران.
باباجمالی، ف. (1386). فرایندهای شکل‏زا و نقش آن در شکل‏گیری کانون‏های مدنی ایران، پایان‏نامة کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی نجف‏آباد.
پرتویی، پ. (1394). پدیدارشناسی مکان، ترجمه و نشر آثار هنری متن، چ ۳.
جداری عیوضی، ج. (1392). ژئومورفولوژی ایران، چ ۳، انتشارات پیام نور.
جمادی، س. (1392). زمینه و زمانة پدیدارشناسی، جستاری در زندگی و اندیشه‏های هوسرل و هایدگر، چ ۴، تهران: ققنوس.
حسن‏زاده، ج.؛ پندآموز، ع.؛ دیوید سون، ج. و استوکلی، د. (1380). آتش‏فشان دماوند: نگاهی به تاریخ تکوین آن بر پایة داده‏های ژئوشیمی و سن‏سنجی جدید، پنجمین همایش انجمن زمین‏شناسی ایران.
درویش‏زاده، ع. (1370). زمین‏شناسی ایران، تهران: نشر دانش امروز وابسته به مؤسسة انتشارات امیرکبیر.
زمردیان، م.ج. (1391). ژئومورفولوژی ایران، ج 1 و 2، مشهد: مؤسسة چاپ و انتشارات دانشگاه فردوسی.
رامشت، م.ح. (1382). نظریة کیاس در ژئومورفولوژی، مجلة جغرافیا و توسعه، ۱(۱): 13-36.
رامشت، م.ح. و باباجمالی، ف. (1388). استثناگرایی در هویت فضای مدنی ایران، جغرافیا و مطالعات محیطی، جغرافیا و مطالعات محیطی، ۱(۱): 5-13.
شیرازی، ا.ه. و فرج‏زاده، م. (1392). مقایسة مواد آذرآواری (پومیس و لاهار) دره‏های ملار و رینه در مخروط آتش‏فشانی دماوند، فصل‏نامة جغرافیای سرزمین، ۱۰(۴۰): 31-40.
علایی طالقانی، م. (1391). ژئومورفولوژی ایران، چ ۷، تهران: قومس.
علمی‏زاده، ه. و شایان، س. (1393). نظریة آشوب در ژئومورفولوژی جریانی (مطالعة موردی تغییرات بستر رود کل، هرمزگان)، جغرافیا و برنامه‏ریزی محیطی، 25(۳): 217- 230.
قربانی شورستانی، ع.؛ خسروی، ع. و نورمحمدی، ع.‏م. (1395). بررسی شواهد ژئومورفولوژیکی یخچال‏های کواترنری در ارتفاعات شمال شرق ایران (مطالعة موردی: رشته‏کوه بینالود)، پژوهش‏های ژئومرفولوژی کمی، 5(۱): 1-12.
کرم، ا. (1389). نظریة آشوب، فرکتال (برخان)، و سیستم‏های غیرخطی در ژئومورفولوژی، فصل‏نامة جغرافیای طبیعی، ۳(۸): 67-82.
مرتضوی، س.ح. (1392). جوان‏ترین فعالیت آذرآواری در آتش‏فشان دماوند، نمونه‏ای از یک فوران ساب پلینی با ارتفاع ستون فوران در استراتوسفر، مجلة علوم زمین، 23(۸۹): 155-166.
مقیمی، ا. (1394). ژئومورفولوژی ایران، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
هایدگر، م. (1391). هستی و زمان، ترجمة عبدالکریم رشیدیان، چ ۲، تهران: نشر نی.
همدانی گلشن، ح. (1394). بازاندیشی نظریة نحو فضا: رهیافتی در معماری و طراحی شهری، مطالعة موردی: خانة بروجردی‏ها، کاشان، نشریة هنرهای زیبا- معماری و شهرسازی، 20(۲): ۸۵-92.
یمانی، م.؛ مقیمی، ا.؛ گورابی، ا.؛ زمان‏زاده، س.م. و محمدی، ا. (1397). ارتباط تناوب آخرین فوران‏های دماوند و توالی دریاچه‏های سدی گدازه‏ای طی کواترنری پسین، پژوهش‏های ژئومورفولوژی کمی، ۷(۳): 196-215.
Alaei Taleghani, M. (2012). Iranian Geomorphology, Seventh Edition, Ghomes Publication.
Brookes, Ian A. (1982). Geomorphological Evidence for Climatic change in IRAN During the Last 20000 Years Paleoclimates, paleo environments and Human Communities in the Eastern Mediteranean region in later Prehistory, Edited by J. L. Blintliff and Willen Van zeist (part 1), Bar International series, 133(i): 191-230.
Bashukooh, B. (2002). Thermal alteration in the east of Yakhar glacier and its position in the history of the formation of Damavand volcano, Master's thesis, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology, Tehran University
Babajamali, F. (2007). Shaping Processes and Its Role in Formation of Iranian Civil Centers, Master's Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Najaf Abad.
Davidson, J.; Hassanzadeh, J.; Berzins, R.; Stockli, D.F.; Bashukooh, B.; Turrin, B. and Pandamouz, A. (2004). The geology of Damavand volcano, Alborz Mountains, northern Iran, Geological Society of America Bulletin, pp. 16-29.
Darwishzadeh, A. (1991). Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran: Today's Science Publishing, affiliated with Amir Kabir Publishing.
Ghorbani Shurestani, A.; Khosravi, A. and Nourmohammadi, A.M. (2016). Investigation of Geomorphologic Evidences of Quaternary Glaciers in Northeastern Highlands (Case Study: Binalood Mountain Range), Quantitative Geomorphology Researches, 1: 12-12.
Eskandari, A.; De Rosa, R. and Amini, S. (2015). Remote sensing of Damavand volcano (Iran) using Landsat imagery: Implications for the volcano dynamics, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 306: 41-57.
Elmizadeh, H. and Shayan, S. (2014). Chaos Theory in Current Geomorphology (Case Study of Chamomile Changes in Hormozgan), Geography and Environmental Planning, 25(3): 217-230.
Hamedani Golshan, H. (2015). "Reflection of the Theory of Space Syntax", An Approach to Urban Architecture and Design, A Case Study: Boroujerdi's Houses, Kashan, The Journal of Fine Arts, Architecture and Urban Development, 20(2): 92-85.
Heidegger, M. (2012). Existence and Time, Translated by Abdolkarim Rashidian, Tehran: Publishing Ney, Second Edition.
Hillier, B. (2007). Space is the machine, a configurational theory of architecture, this electronic edition published in 2007 by: Space Syntax 4 Huguenot Place, Heneage Street London E1 5LN United Kingdom.
Hassenzadeh, J.; Pandamouz, A.; David Soun, J. and Stokley, D. (2001). Damavand volcano: A look at its developmental history based on new geochemical data and the fifth conference of the Geological Society of Iran.
Jedari Eyvazi, J. (2013). Geomorphology of Iran, Thirteenth Edition, Payame Noor Publications.
Jemadi, S. (2013). The Phenomenology of Time and Time, An Investigation into the Life and Thoughts of Husserl and Heidegger, Tehran: Phoenix Publication, Fourth Edition.
Kostka, R. (2002). The world mountain Damavand: documentation and monitoring of human activities using remote sensing data, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, 57: 5-12.
Karbala'i Hosseini, M. (2005). Damavand Volcano's Magnetism Study, Master's Thesis, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology, Tehran University.
Karam, A. (2010). Chaos Uncertainty, Fractal (Barkhan) and Nonlinear Systems in Geomorphology, Natural History Series, 3(8): 67-82.
Mohsenzadeh, M. and Pourkhorsandi, H. (2016). Quantitative textural investigation of trachyandesites of Damavand volcano (N Iran): Insights into the magmatic processes, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 120: 238-247.
Moghimi, E. (2015). Iran Geomorphology, Tehran: Tehran University Press.
Mortazavi, S.H. (2013). The youngest activity in the Damavand volcano, an example of a subalpine eruption with the height of the erupted sediment in the stratosphere, Journal of Earth Sciences, 23(89): 155-166.
Moradi, M. (1996). Nefrochronology and dynamics of Damavand volcano eruption, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology, University of Tehran.
Omidian,S. (2007). Determining the tectonic setting of the Damavand volcano on the basis of structural and geochemical evidence, Master's thesis, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology, Tehran University.
Omidian, S. and Eliasi, M. (2010). Analysis of the Long-Term Stress of the Damage Boundary Dam Zone, Damavand Volcano, Iran, Quarterly Journal of Geology, 4(16): 51-60.
Pourdarabi, H.; Bahmani Zadeh, A.A. and Oskoei, B. (2014). Damavand volcano's ancient magnetism during the past half-million years, Journal of Earth and Space, 40(1): 83-93.
Partoei, P. (2015). Phenomenology of the place, Translation and publication of works of art, third edition
Rahimzadeh, B.; Masoudi, F. and Ranjbar, S. (2014). Study of the features and formation of bubbles during the demolitions of Damavand Volcanic Scoris, Damavand volcano, Journal of Geosciences, 23(92): 11-22.
Ramesht, M.H. (2003). Chaos theory in geomorphology, Geography and Development Magazine, 1(1): 13-36
Ramesht, M.H. and Baba Jammali, F. (2009). Exceptionalism in the identity of Iranian civil space, geography and environmental studies, Geography and environmental studies, 1(1): 5-13.
Shirazi, A.H. and Farajzadeh, M. (2013). Comparison of Azaravari (Pumys and Lahar) valleys of the Molar and Rineh in Damavand volcanic cones, Geographical Quarterly, 40(40): 31-40.
Zomorodiyan, M.J. (2012). Geomorphology of Iran, Volume 1 & 2, Mashhad: Ferdowsi University Press, Mashhad.
Volume 52, Issue 2
July 2020
Pages 193-216
  • Receive Date: 26 November 2018
  • Revise Date: 18 February 2020
  • Accept Date: 18 February 2020
  • First Publish Date: 21 June 2020