Study the relationship between air types and air pollution in Tabriz city

Document Type : Full length article


1 دانشگاه زنجان

2 Zanjan university


Neglecting the environment in recent years has caused many environmental problems. The Extensive development of cities and urbanization, the growth of industrial sector, especially in the vicinity of large cities and combining them with a range of natural and climatic factors, increase the air pollution and change the urban environments, and some of the globalized ones, so the environment gets out of balance and seriously damage and it has raised human concerns for the future. The most important problems of the last two decades are greenhouse gas emissions and global warming.
Air pollution is one of the major environmental and economic problems that have emerged around the world and this issue, especially in large industrial cities, is a more acute problem. It can be said that air pollution has started since the invention of fire. When Industrialization reached the forefront of development, urban climate and air quality changed dramatically, leading to changes in the hydrological cycle, agriculture, irregular rainfall, as well as increasing drought and floods.
The weather conditions on each day are affected by the synoptic conditions prevailing in each region on that day. In other words, it is due to the arrangement of atmospheric systems in relation to each other and the dynamic and thermodynamic properties that govern them. Therefore, the synoptic pattern is sometimes such that the conditions of stability and calm prevail in the atmosphere, and as a result, due to the density of pollutants in the lower layers and lack of atmospheric currents or their weak intensity, the intensity of pollution and increased. Synopticity is such that it makes the atmosphere unstable and due to the intensification of vertical and horizontal currents, contaminants are spread inside the atmosphere and its concentration decreases.
As mentioned above , Air pollution is a significant issue, especially in metropolitan areas. The atmospheric conditions and the air types of the cities are the factors that aggravate this problem. Tabriz metropolis faces severe air pollution. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relation between atmospheric conditions and the air type of the Tabriz city in the intensification of air pollutants.
Materials and methods
Three types of data are used in this study, including: a) the mean of the hourly data of atmospheric pollutants, b) the mean of the daily weather data to extract air types, and c) atmospheric data to study atmospheric patterns of air types.
The weather type of Tabriz city was clustered based on the Euclidean distance and with the integration method "Ward". Accordingly, for the day's selection, the representative will be selected the day most closely resembling the group's maximum number of days. Then, using daily atmospheric data (including sunshine hours, dew point temperature, minimum visibility, average cloudy, average vapor pressure, average wind speed, station pressure, sea level pressure, rainfall, average temperature, average minimum temperature, average maximum Temperature, mean relative humidity, mean relative humidity and average maximum relative humidity) at Tabriz station, the relationship between air pollution and pollution in Tabriz city was investigated.
Results and discussion
Trial and error, applying the mid-group and outsourced type tests, it was revealed that the three weather types were prevalent in Tabriz during the study period. Representative days were extracted from 3 weather types.
Regarding PM10 pollutants and air types, it was found that days with a hazardous state of concern for PM10 have occurred in type 2. For this reason, three days with low, moderate and dangerous pollution were extracted from PM10 in type 2. The days of the representative of the three brigades were as follows:
weather types 1: 29/3/2004, weather types 2: 3/4/2004, 15/4/2005 (For PM10 with low pollution), 28/11/2005 (For PM10 with moderate pollution) and 6/5/2009 ( In terms of PM10 with high contamination (and type 3: 14/4/2004)
By investigating atmospheric variables and atmospheric pollutants, it was found that the amount of air pollution is more related to wind speed and direction. The winds are low in winter, but there are plenty of swings in this season from the southwest and west. Most of the major industries in the city of Tabriz are in the west of the city, which winds the west of suspended particles into the city, and the Ainal and Zinalal mountains in the northeast of the city function as a barrier against the wind stream, and the suspended. wind carried particles to the The city. In the winter, there is a reversal that intensifies pollution and concentration in the city and reduces its transmission to other parts.
The results of the survey of air types associated with infected days show the dominant wind direction in these days is from southwest, northeast with a relatively low speed which is the result of the deployment of two high-pressure centers of Europe and Siberia in the northwest and northeast of Iran and one low-pressure center on the Caspian Sea. As a result, the movement of air from high-pressure areas to the low-pressure zone in the clockwise direction has led to the development of south-west flows. On the days when the PM10 pollutant has reached its highest level, in the 1000-HP level a low-pressure center and in the 500-HP orbital flow is dominant in the study area. The wind of sea-level and the 500-HP were from southwest and west. Since the industries and factories of Tabriz city are located in the west side of the city, the mentioned low-pressure in connection with adjacent systems leads particles and industrial pollution to the center of the city.
Most of the major industries of the city such as thermal power plant, petrochemical complex, refinery etc. are located in the west of the city.
Tabriz is surrounded by rough terrain and is located in a valley where pollutants cannot spread easily and sometimes condense on top of the area. Winds from the west bring suspended particles to the city, and the Aynal and Zinal Mountains in the northeast of the city serve as a barrier against wind currents and suspended particles carried by the wind over the city.
The provisional nature of suspended particulate contamination confirms the existence of a temporary diffusion factor, namely the wind factor, so there is a direct relationship between the increase in air and wind particulate matter from the southwest of Tabriz.


پناهی، ع. (1397). بررسی ارتباط بین آلاینده‏های شاخص کیفیت هوا و پارامترهای هواشناسی در اینورژهای شدید شهر تبریز، فصل‏نامة فضای جغرافیایی، ۱۸(۶۲): ۶۳-76.
روحانی. ی.؛ دبیر. ب. و پنجه‏شاهی. م.ح. (1385). توسعة کاربرد تکنولوژی پینچ برای آلودگی هوا، نشریة شیمی مهندسی شیمی ایران، 25(۱): ۸۷-94.
جهان‏بخش اصل. س. و روشنی. ر. (1393). بررسی شرایط الگوی سینوپتیکی حاکم بر وضعیت‏های وارونگی دمای بسیار شدید شهر تبریز، نشریة علمی‏– پژوهشی جغرافیا و برنامه‏ریزی، 18(۴۸): ۸۱-96.
حیدری، ح.؛ علیجانی، ب. (1378)، طبقه بندی اقلیمی ایران با استفاده از تکنیک های آماری چندمتغیره، پژوهش های جغرافیایی شماره 37،اسفندماه 1378، 74-57
خلیل ارجقی. ش. و مربی هروی، ه. (1398). مقایسة رابطة انواع شاخص‏ها و آلودگی هوا در شهر تبریز، مدیریت محیط زیست و توسعة پایدار، 2(۴۵۸): ۱-۵.
خورشیددوست. ع. م. و شیرزاد. ع. ا. (1393). بررسی و تحلیل بارش‏های ناحیة شمال ایران با استفاده از تحلیل خوشه‏ای و تجزیة تابع تشخیص، نشریة علمی– پژوهشی جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی، 18(۴۹): ۱۰۱-118.
دل‏پیشه. ع.؛ دیرکوند مقدم. ا. و دیرکوند مقدم. ف. (1393). تأثیر آلودگی هوا بر نتایج بارداری: یک مطالعة موردی، مجلة زنان مامایی و نازیئی ایران، ۱۷(۱۰۲): ۷-۱۱.
عساکره، ح. (1396). مبانی پژوهش در آب و هواشناسی، زنجان: دانشگاه زنجان.
فلاح قالهری. غ. ع.؛ اسدی. م. و انتظاری. ع. ر. (1394). ناحیه‏بندی آب‏وهوایی استان گیلان با روش‏های چندمتغیره، نشریة علمی‏– پژوهشی جغرافیا و برنامه‏ریزی، 19(۵۴): ۲۳۵-251.
قربانی. ر.؛ حسین‏زاده دلیر، ک. و شکری فیروزجاه. پ. (1391). بررسی وضعیت آلودگی هوای شهر تبریز براساس تحلیل مؤلفه‏های اصلی (PCA)، نشریة علمی‏– پژوهشی جغرافیا و برنامه‏ریزی، 16(۳۹): ۸۹-108.
قربانی. م. ع.؛ سرورپور. ب.؛ جباری خامنه. ح.؛ اسدی. ا. و فاضلی فرد. م. ح. (1393). طبقه‏بندی دمایی ایستگاه‏های هواشناسی کشور با استفاده از خوشه‏بندی فازی و شبکة عصبی مصنوعی کوهنن، نشریة علمی‏– پژوهشی جغرافیا و برنامه‏ریزی، 20(۵۵): ۴۵-63.
کاویانی. م. و علیجانی. ب. (1398). مبانی آب‏وهواشناسی، چ ۲۱، تهران: سمت.
لشکری. ح. و هدایت. پ. (1385). تحلیل الگوی سینوپتیکی اینورژن‏هـای شـدید شـهر تهـران، پـژوهش‏هـای جغرافیـایی، 56: ۶۵-82.
نوروززاده. ف. (1386). بررسی آلودگی هوا و منابع آلایندة هوا در سطح شهر تبریز، پایان‏نامة کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه زنجان، دانشکدة جغرافیا.
Asakereh, H. (2017). Fundamentals of Research in Meteorology, Zanjan: Zanjan University
Barry, R. (1997). Synoptic Climatology, in J.E Oliver and R.W. Fairbrdge (eds), The Encyclopedia of Climatology, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Book.
Benaissa, F.; Alkama, R. and Annesi -Maesano, I. (2014). Assessment of Air Pollution Impacts on Population Health in Bejaia City, Northern Algeria, Iranian J Publ Health, 43(9): 1221-1228.
Chi-Hsien, C.; Chang-Chuan, C.; Bing-Yu, C.; Tsun-Jen, C. and Yue Leon, G. (2015). Effects of particulate air pollution and ozone on lung function in non-asthmatic children, Environmental Research, 137: 40-48.
Del Pishe, A.; Dirkavand Moghaddam, A. and Dirkavannd Moghaddam, F. (2014). The effect of air pollution on pregnancy outcomes: a case study, Iranian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 17(102): 7-11.
Dimitriou, K.; Paschalidou, A.K. and Kassomenos, P.A. (2013). Assessing air quality with regards to its effect on human health in the European Union through air quality indices, Ecological Indicators, 27: 108-115.
Falah Ghalhari, GH. A.; Asadi, M. and Entezari, A. R. (2015). Climatic zoning of Guilan province with multivariate methods, Journal of Geography and Planning, 19(54): 235-251.
Ghorbani, M.; Sarvarpor, B.; Jabari Khamane, H.; Asadi, A. and Fazeli Fard, M. H. (2014). Temperature classification of meteorological stations using fuzzy clustering and artificial neural network Cohen, Journal of Geography and Planning, 20(55): 45-63.
Ghorbani, R.; Hosseinzadeh Dalir, K. and Shukri Firoozjah, P. (2012). Investigation of air pollution in Tabriz based on principal component analysis (PCA), Journal of Geography and Planning, 16(39): 89-108.
Heydari, H. and Alijani, B. (1999). Climatic Classification of Iran Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Geographical Research No. 37, March 1999, 74-57.
Jahan Bakhsh Asl, S. and Roshani, R. (2014). Investigation of synoptic pattern conditions governing very high temperature inversion conditions in Tabriz, Journal of Geography and Planning, 18 (48): 81-96.
Kaviani, M. and Alijani, B. (2019). Fundamentals of Meteorology, Tehran: Samt.
Kaygusuz, K. (2009). Energy and Environmental Issues Relating to Greenhouse Gas for Sustainable Development in Turkey, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13: 253-270.
Khaiwal, Ravindra; Maninder, Kaur-Sidhu and Suman, Mor (2020). Air Pollution in Rural Households Due to Solid Biomass Fuel Use and Its Health Impacts, Indoor Environmental Quality, pp. 27-33.
Khalil Arjaghi,. SH.. and Morrabi Heravi, H. (2019). Comparison of the relationship between various indicators and air pollution in the city of Tabriz, Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, 2 (458): 1-5.
Khorshid Dost, A. M. and Shirzad, A. A. (2014). Investigation and analysis of precipitation in the northern region of Iran using cluster analysis and analysis of diagnostic function, Journal of Geography and Planning, 18(49): 101-118.
Kunwar, P.; Singh, Shikha G. and Premanjali, R. (2013). Identifying pollution sources and predicting urban air quality using ensemble learning methods,  Atmospheric Environment, 80: 426-437.
Lashkari, H. and Hedayat, P. (2006). Analysis of Synoptic Pattern of Severe Inversions in Tehran, Geographical Research, 56: 65-82.
Lavanya, C.; Dhankar, R.; Chhikara, S. and Soni, R. (2014). Review Article Outdoor Air Pollution and Health: A Comprehnsive Review, International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 5(7): 1248-1255.
Maigeng, Z.; Guojun, H.; Yunning, L.; Peng, Y.; Yichong, L.; Haidong, K.; Maorong, F.; An Xue, Maoyong Fan (2015). The associations between ambient air pollution and adult respiratory mortality in 32 major Chinese cities, 20 0 6– 2010, Environmental Research, 137: 278-286.
Noruzzadeh, F. (20017). Investigation of Air Pollution and Air Pollution Sources in Tabriz, M.Sc. Thesis, Zanjan University, Faculty of Geography.
Panahi, A. (2018). Investigating the relationship between air quality index pollutants and meteorological parameters in severe inversions of Tabriz, Geographic Space, 18(62): 63-76.
Quarmby, S.; Santos, G. and Mathias, M. (2019). Air Quality Strategies and Technologies: A Rapid Review of the International Evidence, Sustainability, 11: 2757.
Spiritual, Y.; Secretary, B.; Spiritual. Y. And Panje Shai, M. H. (2006). Development of application of pinch technology for air pollution, Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 25(1): 87-94.