Locating temporary settlement based on flood hazard in Shiraz

Document Type : Full length article

Authors

1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Geography, Department of Physical Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor of Geomorphology, Faculty of Geography, Department of Physical Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 PhD student in Geomorphology, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Locating temporary settlement based on flood hazard in Shiraz
Extended Abstract
Introduction
Natural hazards, especially floods, as recurring and destructive phenomena, have always existed throughout the life of the planet and have always been a danger to humans. The experiences of developing countries in this field indicate that they are more vulnerable to natural hazards. Due to its natural and human characteristics, Iran has suffered many crises and is one of the most vulnerable countries to natural hazards.
Rivers are one of the vital arteries in attracting population and creating urban and rural settlements, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The Khoshk and Rahdar River in the metropolitan area of Shiraz has been one of the dangerous geomorphic areas of the city in recent years. The location of Shiraz urban area due to the location of a significant part of it on the geomorphological field of floodplains of rivers is associated with the threat of flood risk, which is evidenced by floods in 1986, 2001 and 2019 and the damage caused by them. Therefore, the necessary environmental management in this field before, during, and after the flood in the urban area of Shiraz is essential. This study aims to help by locating temporary settlements based on flood risk in the urban area of Shiraz, which is doubly important with a population concentration (population of 1.5 million people) and significant economic capital.
Materials and methods
In this research, digital topographic maps of 1: 25000, geological 1: 100000, digital model of altitude 10 meters, detailed study map, aerial photographs, and satellite images have been used. Statistics of hydrological stations were provided by the Regional Water Organization. To calculate the average annual discharge of stations in the 25-year index period (1989-2014), at first, the statistics of stations with a statistical period of more than 10 years have been reconstructed by establishing a correlation between the annual discharge of these stations and the reference stations. Annual discharge statistics in stations with a statistical period of 10 years or more have been reconstructed and supplemented using the correlation between them and base stations.
The research method used in this research is descriptive-analytical. First, flood zoning was done for the study area and then suitable places for temporary settlement were determined. Flood zoning was determined using Hec_GeoHMS and HEC_GeoRAS models for Khoshk and Rahdar Rivers.To select suitable neighborhoods for temporary settlement, first the necessary criteria for this location are prepared and after preparing these criteria, in the location stage, according to experts, scoring frameworks are determined based on these criteria. Determining suitable places for temporary settlement during flood risk in the study area has been done using multi-criteria decision-making models and the AHP model using ArcGIS software.
Results and Discussion
Flood zoning was performed using HecGeoHMS and HECGeoRAS models for Dry River that flows seasonally. Due to the lack of information on the flow of the river, the flood zone of the Rahdar River has been determined by field visits and the opinion of the experts of the Water Regional Organization (average radius of 150 meters).
According to studies, the main criteria for locating temporary settlement are: 1) distance to the flood zone, 2) distance to the border of mountains and plains, 3) distance to empty spaces (land without construction, garden, park and space Green, and agricultural lands), 4) building density, 5) distance to waterway and river, 6) distance to fire station, 7) total population, 8) vulnerable population (less than ten years and over 65 years) 9) compatibility of land uses, 10) distance to main thoroughfares, 11) distance to health centers, 12) distance to military-law enforcement points, 13) ground level, 14) land slope, 15) slope direction and 16) distance To the entrance of waterway and river.
The steps for analyzing the data are as follows:
1- Preparation of raster layers of criteria
2- Reclassify the raster layers of the criteria
3- Converting raster layers to vector layers
4- Calculation of relative weights of sub-criteria by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
5- Calculating the relative weights of sub-criteria the use compatibility
6- Preparation of raster layer of relative weights of sub-criteria
7- Determining the relative weight of criteria
8- Combining the layers of relative weights of the sub-criteria and determining the spatial utility index
9- Determining the average spatial utility index in empty spaces
10 - Determining the best areas for the construction of emergency settlement
Conclusions
Shiraz has seen heavy and torrential rains 5 times in the last century. The water flowed out of the dry river and flowed in the passages and streets, causing major damage to houses and commercial places along the river. Many people needed a place to live temporarily. The uncontrolled expansion of the city, especially in the northwest axis, and the loss of natural areas absorbing runoff and precipitation and reducing vegetation in the region has caused that in high rainfall (more than 70 mm in 24 hours) and intermittent, water can not penetrate the soil. Slow and eventually flow in the path due to lack of drainage and proper disposal system. Among the effective human factors are land-use change, commercial, recreational and residential constructions, tampering with waterways or blocking these waterways completely, construction in the area of canals, construction of communication bridges on canals and narrowing of waterways.
Locating temporary settlement before the hazard occurs and in the planning stage can help managers have a written action plan after the hazard occurs .One of the differences between this research and other researches is the type of criteria considered and that so far no comprehensive study has been conducted on the subject of research for Shiraz. Suitable places for temporary settlement during flood risk in the study area were determined using multi-criteria decision- making models and the AHP model using ArcGIS software. The combination of criteria for locating suitable areas for temporary settlement in Shiraz (Figures 9, 10 and 11) shows that areas in the southeast and central areas are among the areas with high potential for temporary settlement.
Keywords: AHP, flood, settlement,

Keywords

Main Subjects


اشراقی، م. و ایران‏منش، ف. (1386). مکان‏یابی اماکن اسکان موقت جمعیت‏های آسیب‏دیده از زمین‏لرزه با بهره‏گیری از سامانه‏های اطلاعات مکانی (مطالعة موردی منطقة 2 شهرداری تهران)، دومین کنفرانس بین‏المللی مدیریت جامع بحران در حوادث غیرمترقبة طبیعی، تهران: شرکت کیفیت ترویج.
اصغرپور، م.ج. (1387). تصمیم‏گیری چندمعیاره، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
امیدوار، ب.؛ نوجوان، م. و برادران شرکاء، م. (1389). مکان‏یابی اسکان موقت با استفاده از  GIS(مطالعة موردی: منطقة یک شهرداری تهران)، دومین کنفرانس برنامه‏ریزی و مدیریت شهری، مشهد: دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.
پورطاهری، م. (1390). کاربرد روش‏های تصمیم‏گیری چندشاخصه در جغرافیا، تهران: سمت.
جمالی، م.؛ جعفرپور، ز. و کردوانی، پ. (1394). تحلیل فضایی مخاطرات ژئومورفولوژیکی توسعة شهر در حریم رودخانة خشک کلان‏شهر شیراز، نشریة تحلیل فضایی مخاطرات محیطی، 2(3): 51-61.
داداش‏زاده، ع.؛ تقوای، م. و ضرابی، اص. (1396). ارزیابی عوامل مؤثر بر مکان‏یابی اسکان موقت مطالعة موردی: شهر ارومیه، پژوهش‏های جغرافیای انسانی، دورة 49 ، شمارة 2، صص325-340.
دانایی‏نیا، اح. و زاغیان، م.ع. (1397). مکان‏یابی اسکان ‏موقت ‏زلزله‏زدگان ‏در‏ بافت ‏تاریخی؛ مبانی و ‏راهبردها (مطالعة ‏موردی:‏ محلة ‏محتشم‏ کاشان)، فصل‏نامة علمی- پژوهشی برنامه‏ریزی فضایی (جغرافیا)، 8(4): 27-46.
رحیمی، م.؛ عبدالهی، ع. اص. و ایلاقی حسینی، م. (1394). مکان‏یابی اردوگاه‏های اسکان موقت در مواقع زلزله (مطالعة موردی: شهرستان‏های جیرفت و عنبرآباد)، نشریة مطالعات نواحی شهری دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، 2(3): 41-58.
رکن‏الدین افتخاری، ع.؛ قدیری، م.ع.؛ پرهیزکار، اک. و شایان، س. (1388). تحلیلی بر دیدگاه‏های مفهومی آسیب‏پذیری جامعه نسبت به مخاطرات طبیعی، برنامه‏ریزی و آمایش فضا مدرس علوم انسانی، 13(1): 29-62.
شجاع عراقی، م. و تولایی، س. (1390). مکان‏یابی پایگاه‏های پشتیبانی مدیریت بحران با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، منطقة 6 شهرداری تهران، مجلة مطالعات و پژوهش‏های شهری و منطقه‏ای، 3(10): 41-60.
صمدزادگان، ف. (1384). مکان‏یابی اماکن اسکان موقت به‏منظور GIS مدیریت حوادث غیرمترقبه بر مبنای به‏کارگیری سیستم‏های اطلاعات مکانی هوشمند، اولین کنفرانس بین المللی مدیریت جامع بحران در حوادث غیر مترقبه، تهران.
فلاحی، ع. (1386)، معماری سکونتگاه‏های موقت پس از زمین لرزه، انتشارات دانشگاه شهید بهشتی. تهران.
قادری، ر.؛ امیدوارفر، س. و بایرام‏زاده، ن. (1400). مکان‏یابی اسکان موقت جهت مدیریت بحران بعد از زلزله (نمونة موردی: شهرستان ارومیه)، دومین کنفرانس بین‏المللی و پنجمین کنفرانس ملی صیانت از منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، اردبیل.
قنبران، ع.ح.؛ حسین‏علی، ف.؛ حسینی، س.ب. و بهرامی‏دوست، پ. (1398). مکان‏یابی مراکز بیمارستانی با تکیه بر مخاطرات طبیعی و با استفاده از مدل تحلیل شبکه‏ای (ANP) نمونة موردی (منطقة پنج شهر تهران)، آمایش محیط، 12(44): 127-156.
کاظمی‏نیا، ع. (1398). مکان‏یابی احداث اسکان موقت شهر کرمان با استفاده از GIS، فصل‏نامة مدیریت بحران، 16: 47-59.
کاویانی، م. و علیجانی، ب. (1387). مبانی آب‏و‏هواشناسی، چ 14، تهران: سمت.
محمدی طبائی، م. و نوربخش، ه. (1400). مکان‏یابی بهینة مراکز اسکان موقت در بحران‏های شهری (نمونة موردی: منطقة ۳ اصفهان)، کنفرانس ملی معماری، عمران، شهرسازی، و افق‏های هنر اسلامی در بیانیة گام دوم انقلاب، تبریز.
مرکز آمار ‏و‏ سرشماری ایران (1395).
مهرگان، م.ر. (1383). پژوهش عملیاتی پیشرفته، انتشارات کتاب دانشگاهی.
Anand, A.; Jethoo, AS.; Sharma, G. (2015). Selection of temporary rehabilitation location after disaster: a review. European Scientific Journal, ESJ., 11(10): 161-169.
Anhorn, J. and Khazai, B. (2015). Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 15(4): 789-803.
Asgharpour, MJ. (2008). Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Tehran: University of Tehran Press.
Barbara, Theilen-Willige and Helmut, Wenzel (2019). Remote Sensing and GIS Contribution to a Natural Hazard Database in Western Saudi Arabia. Geosciences, 9(9): 380.
Brooke, S. (2017). Location: An Analysis of Safe Haven Siting in New York City, partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning. Tufts University.
Dadashzadeh, A.; Taqwa, M. and Zarrabi, AS. (2017). Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Location of Emergency settlement Case Study: Urmia, Human Geography Research, 49(2): 325-340.
Danaeinia, Ah. and Zaghayan, M.A. (2018). Location of temporary settlement Earthquake victims Historical context; Fundamentals and Strategies Case Study: Mohtasham Kashan District, Spatial Planning (Geography) Quarterly, 8(4): 27-46.
Falahi, A. (2007). Architecture of Temporary Settlements after Earthquake, Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University Press.
Ishraqi, M. and Eramanesh, F. (2007). Locating Temporary Settlements of Earthquake-Affected Populations Using Spatial Information Systems (Case Study of District 2 of Tehran Municipality), Second International Conference on Comprehensive Crisis Management in Natural Disasters, Tehran, Quality Promotion Company.
Jamali, M.; Jafarpour, Z. and Kordvani, P. (2015). Spatial Analysis of Geomorphological Risks of Urban Development in the Dry River Area of Shiraz, Journal of Spatial Analysis of Environmental Risks, 2(3): 51-61.
Jifu, Liu; Yida, Fan and Piejun, Shi. (2011). Response to a high-Altitude Earthquake: The Yushu Earthquake example, Int J. Disaster risk sci, 2(1): 43-53.
Katerina, R.; Donevska, Pece and Gorsevski, V. (2011). Regional non-hazardous landfill site selection by integrating fuzzy logic, AHP and geographic information systems, Environ Earth Sci, pp. 40-48.
Kaviani, M. and Alijani, B. (2008). Fundamentals of Meteorology, Fourteenth Edition, Tehran: Samat Publications.
Kazemi Nia, A. (2019). Location of temporary housing in Kerman using GIS. Crisis Management Diary, 16: 47-59.
Li, H.; Zhao, L.; Huang, R. and Hu, Q. (2017). Hierarchical earthquake shelter planning in urban area: a case for Shanghai in China. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. pp. 431-446.
Mehregan, M.R. (2004). Advanced Operations Research, University Book Publishing, First Edition.
Mohammadi Tabaei, M. and Noorbakhsh, H. (2021). Optimal location of temporary shelter centers in urban crises (Case study: Isfahan Region 3). National Conference on Architecture, Civil Engineering, Urban Planning and Horizons of Islamic Art in the Statement of the Second Step of the Revolution, Tabriz.
Omidvar, B.; Nojavan, M. and Shoraca Brothers, M. (2010). Locating Temporary shelter Using GIS Case Study: District One of Tehran Municipality, Second Conference on Urban Planning and Management, Mashhad: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
Poor Taheri, M. (2011). Application of multi-criteria decision making methods in geography, Tehran: Samt Publications.
Qaderi, R.; Omidvarfar, S. and Bayramzadeh, N. (2021). Location of temporary shelter for post-earthquake crisis management (case study: Urmia city), The second international conference and the fifth national conference on protection of natural resources and environment, Ardabil.
Qanbaran, A.H.; Hussein Ali, F.; Hosseini, S.B. and Bahrami Doust, P. (2019). Location of Hospital Centers Based on Natural Hazards and Using Network Analysis Model (ANP) Case Study (District Five of Tehran), Environmental Management, 12(44): 127-156.
Rahimi, M.; Abdollahi, A.AS. and Ilaqi Hosseini, M. (2015). Location of temporary settlement camps during earthquakes Case study: Jiroft and Anbarabadi counties, Journal of Urban Areas Studies, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, 2(3): 41-58.
Reed, S.B. (1979). Introduction to hazards. Disaster Management Training Program UNDP.
Rukn al-Din Iftikhari, A.; Ghadiri, M.A.; Parhizkar, Ak. and Shayan, S. (2009). An Analysis of Conceptual Perspectives of Society Vulnerability to Natural Hazards, 'Planning and Spatial Planning, Teacher of Humanities, 13(1): 62-29.
Saaty, T. L. (2005). Fundamentals of the Analytic Network Process, Proceedings of ISAHP, Kobe. Japan.
Saaty, TL. (1980). The analytic hierarchy process: planning, priority setting, and resource allocation. New York/London: McGraw-Hill International Book Co.
Samadzadegan, F. (2005). Locating Temporary Settlements for GIS Unexpected Disaster Management Based on the Use of Intelligent Spatial Information Systems, The First International Conference on Comprehensive Crisis Management in Unexpected Disasters, Tehran.
Shojai Iraqi, M. and Tulai, S. (2011). Location of Crisis Management Support Databases Using Geographic Information System, District 6 of Tehran Municipality, Journal of Urban and Regional Studies and Research, 3(10): 41-60. Statistics and Census Center of Iran (2016).
Unal, M. and Uslu, C. (2016). GIS-Based Accessibility analysis of urban emergency shelters: the case of adana city. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XLII-2/W1, 2016 3rd International GeoAdvances Workshop, 16-17 October 2016, Istanbul, Turkey. pp. 95-101.
Uzun, O. and Senic, B. (2021). An assessment on size and site selection of emergency assembly points and temporary shelter areas in Düzce. Natural Hazards, Vol. 105, pp.1587-1602.
Wei, Y. and Jin, L. (2020). Instructions for planning emergency shelters and open spaces in China: Lessons from global experiences and expertise. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol. 51.
Williams, G.; Batho, S. and Russell, L. (2000). The emergency planning response to the bombing of Manchester city centre. Cities. 17(4): 293-304.
Xuefen, Liu and Samsung, Lim (2015). A spatial analysis approach to evacuation management: shelter assignment and routing. Eds. pp. 69-77.
Volume 53, Issue 4
February 2022
Pages 487-507
  • Receive Date: 08 March 2021
  • Revise Date: 21 August 2021
  • Accept Date: 29 August 2021
  • First Publish Date: 05 September 2021