کاربرد اصول دانش طراحی اقلیمی در طراحی فضاهای شهری با تأکید بر آسایش حرارت– تحقق طراحی و نتایج از پروژة سهیل

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه لرستان

3 دانش‌آموختة کارشناسی ارشد اقلیم‌شناسی، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

این پژوهش در برگیرندة چگونگی بهره‌گیری از اصول دانش طراحی اقلیمی در خلق فضاهای شهری بر پایة تأمین آسایش حرارتی است. این پژوهش بر طراحی سایت سهیل در منطقة 19 شهر تهران با سنجش عملکرد طراحی در محدودة خرد‌مقیاس با شبیه‌سازی در مدل سه‌بعدی خرد‌اقلیم ENVI-met® انجام گرفت. مقایسة نتایج مدل‌سازی و شبیه‌سازی خرد‌اقلیم مؤلفه‌های دمایی در شاخص‌های دمای پتانسیل و دمای تابشی نشان داد که محدودة خرد‌اقلیم خلق‌شدة ناشی از طراحی، به کاهش اوج دمای محیط در طول روزهای تابستان تا بیش از 10 درجة سلسیوس کمک شایان توجهی می‌کند؛ این درحالی است که شرایط آسایش در حد چشمگیری بهبود یافته است. همچنین، در بررسی شرایط زمستان مشاهده شد که مقدار دمای مؤثر در محدودة کاربری‌های مورد نظر، به‌سبب بهره‌مندی از جذب و ذخیرة انرژی تابشی خورشیدی تحت تأثیر نوع طراحی، به بیش از 15درجة سلسیوس در هنگام ظهر ‌رسید؛ در حالی که در این فصل از سال، متوسط دمای بیشینة حاکم بر محیط 9 درجة سلسیوس بود. نتایج پژوهش، بر لزوم رویکرد علمی به کاربرد و استفاده از دانش طراحی اقلیمی در جزئیات سبک و الگوی شهرسازی و معماری ایران تأکید می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Use of Climate Desing Knowledge in Urban Spaces Design Emphasizing on Thermal Comfort -Design Realization and Results of Soheil Project

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Akbar Shamsipour 1
  • Dariush Yarahmadi 2
  • Farzad Salmanian 3
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Humanities, University of Lorestan, Iran
3 MA in geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Science of climatic design is defined as a set of theoretical principles and practical methods of management. The knowledge wants to provide a suitable living environment leading to healthy life based on sustainable development and the coherence relationship between the concepts of climatology, architecture and urban design. This attempts to provide aesthetic elements as the main criteria for the development of cities along with making profound effects on the use of sustainable energy with thermal comfort and reduction of energy costs. Therefore, the metropolitan such as Tehran is evident in this case. In addition to loss of preparation in providing thermal comfort conditions in the space activities, no consistent pattern, standard and desirability are observed for the development of its space, except inspecial cases. As a result, principles of climatic design could be used as an important factor in the context of solving the problems. In this case, using the Micro-climate simulation models is necessary for a better understanding and detailed calculations of the way of operation and influence of climatic elements in the design of urban spaces. This seems essential to achieve a consistent and stable pattern by providing thermal comfort conditions. Because, using these models can contributes to estimation of the performance of designed space to take the benefit of effective climatic elements influencing thermal comfort. According to what stated, the presented study focused on assessment ability and rules of climatic design knowledge in creation of a Good Life Center, using three-dimensional microclimate model ENVI_met®. Moreover, observation of the ability of climatic design principles in creation of a real space in the city is based on thermal comfort conditions as another aspect of this research.
 
Materials and Methods
In this study, for designing a site based on climatic design principles, first atmospheric data on the required variables were collected from Mehrabad Airport Weather Station. They were analysed in Autodesk Ecotect-Analysis software. Thereafter, output data from Autodesk Ecotect software were merged by techniques of library and review of the studies. This finally will lead to the design of the site. In the final stage, the pattern designed in the Envi-met model (version 4) was simulated.
Results and Discussion
Results of this research indicated that how the climatic design science principles in creation of urban space contribute to creation of an environment based on thermal comfort suitability. For example, evaluation of massing site, deviation of main façade of masses with flexibility in using radiation energy,predominant wind flows,the use of vegetation in the green roofs, brick on sidewalk surface, and applying networks of gullies made the area able to create thermal comfort for all seasons.



 
 



Therefore, site simulation results in the microclimate model ENVI_met ® showed that temperature and relative humidity of designed space in the warmest month (July) were 24.60 οC and 50%, respectively. This is in comparison with maximum average temperature of 37 οC and relative humidity of 20% in the coldest month (October) because of use of solar energy.Effective temperature level in designed space reached up to 15 οC while maximum average temperature of environment was 9 οC. Thus, it can be argued that biosphere designed on the basis of principles of climate designing science will be a good bio-climatic state. The complex is agreeable with natural environment and human condition.
Conclusion
Improvement of thermal comfort conditions in urban areas, especially open spaces, is the main aim of each bioclimatic design. Thus, the sufficient knowledge about the most important tools of science of climate designing is very important. Results of designing of a real urban project with area of 9207 square meter is based on the principles of science of climate designing and simulation in the three-dimensional microclimate model by ENVI_met®. This indicated that designing and building a mass-based investment analysis chart (S.R.W.R) is the result of combination of both solar radiation and wind rose region. As one of the tools of the science, this analysis directed the urban spatial structure in the forms that sidewalk networks during days of July are exposed to direct sunlightwith breezein peak hours ofdaily temperature and that in winter while receiving direct radiation of sunlight at noon the temperature is effectively increased up to 15 C° degrees on the sidewalk networks. The use and suggestion of cold traditional flooring techniques in sidewalk networks are application of brick in contrast with modern floorings such as asphalt. The widespread use of vegetation in green roof patterns and networks of gullies are supplement to increase the effects of designing and securing the thermal comfort conditions in context of the site. This could be as general principles of rules the knowledge in designing of urban spaces in the areas with dry and warm summers. These are the principles that their application in designing fabric site created space that decreased the average of maximum air temperature from 37 C° degrees up to 24.60 C° degrees in July. In general, there is a claim that the use of the knowledge in design of urban spaces provides stable coherent pattern in the structure of urban space and different patterns of fabric in comparison with each other, in addition to supplying thermal comfort conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • climatic design
  • ENVI-met
  • TEHRAN
  • temperature
  • Thermal Comfort
سلمانیان، ف. (1390). طراحی و شبیه‌سازی اقلیمی فضاهای فعالیتی (قطعه‌زمین 9000 مترمربع محدودة دولتخواه در منطقة 19 تهران)، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد در رشتة اقلیم‌شناسی، تهران: دانشگاه تهران.
سلیقه، م. (1383). مدل‌سازی مسکن همساز با اقلیم برای شهر چابهار، مجلة جغرافیا و توسعه، شمارة 4، ص. 148-169.
شمسی‌پور، ع. و امینی، ژ. (1392)، شبیه‌سازی الگوی پراکنش CO با مدل خرداقلیمی Envi-met در مسیر آزادی‌ـ تهران‌‌پارس، جغرافیا و مخاطرات محیطی، شمارة 7، ص. 85-103.
گلکار، ک. (1379). طراحی شهری پایدار در شهرهای حاشیة کویر، نشریة هنرهای زیبا، شمارة 8 ، ص. 43-52.
لشکری، ح. و پور‌خادم نمین، ز. (1384). بهینه‌سازی جهت‌گیری فضاهای آزاد در شهر اردبیل بر اساس شرایط اقلیمی، فصلنامة تحقیقات جغرافیایی، شمارة 4، پیاپی 79، ص. 19-36.
Azri, N.Al., Zurigat, Y. and Al-Rawahi, N., 2012, Development of Bioclimatic Chart for Passive Building Design in Muscat-Oman, International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’12),Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 28th to 30th March, 2012.
Alexandri, E. and Jones, P., 2008, Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates, Journal of  Building and Environment 43, PP. 480–493.
Bruse, M., 1999, The influences of local environmental design on microclimate (in German). PhD Thesis. Bochum: University of Bochum, Germany, PP. 196.
Bruse, M. and Fleer, H., 1998, Simulating surface-plant-air interactions inside urban environments with a three dimensional numerical model. Environ. Modell. Softw. ,No. 13, PP. 373-384.
Bruse, M., 2007, Particle filtering capacity of urban vegetation: a microscale numerical approach. In: Endlicher, W., Gorbachevskaya, O., Kappis, C., Langner, M. (Eds.), Tagungsband zum Workshop über den wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisstand über das Feinstaubfilterungspotential (qualitativ und quantitativ) von Pflanzen, Vol. 109. Berliner Geographische Arbeiten, PP. 61-70.
Blocken, B. and Carmeliet, H., 2005, Wind environment around buildings: literature review and practical examples, Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science, No. 28, PP. 107–159.
Brown, M., Marty, L., Calhoun, R., Smith, S., Reisner, J., Lee, B., Chin, S. and De Croix, D., 2001, Multi-scale  modeling of air flow in salt lake city and the surrounding region, in: ASCE Structure Congress Conference, Washington, DC, PP. 61-70.
Czáder, K., Balczó, M. and Eichhorn, J., 2009, Modelling of flow and dispersion in a street canyon with vegetation by means of numerical simulation. In: Lehoczky, L., Kalmár, L. (Eds.), microCAD’09 International Scientific Conference, Miskolc, Hungary.
De Maerschalck, B., Janssen, S., Vankerkom, J., Mensink, C., van den Burg, A. and Fortuin, P., 2008, CFD simulations of the impact of a line vegetation element along a motorway on local air quality, Hrvatski Meteoroloski Casopis, No. 43, PP. 339-344.
Deberky, A., 2005,Towards Urban Design Adapts with Southern Egypt, PhD Thesis, Egypt: University of Ein- Shamce, PP. 65-100.
Gromke, C. and Ruck, B., 2007, Influence of trees on the dispersion of pollutants in an urban street canyon - Experimental investigation of the flow and concentration field, Atmos, nviron,No. 41, PP. 3287-3302.
Golkar, C., 2000, Sustainable Urban Design in the desert cities, Journal of Honar-ha-ye Ziba, No. 8, PP. 43-52.
ISO 7730, 2000, Moderate thermal environment – Determination of the PMV and PPD indices and specification of conditions for thermal comfort, Reference number ISO 7730: 2000 (E), CH-1211 Geneve 20, Switzerland.
Krüger, E.L., Minella, F.O. and Rasia, F., 2011, Impact of urban geometry on outdoor thermal comfort and air quality from field measurements in Curitiba, Brazil, Journal of  Building and Environment, No. 46, PP. 621-634.
Lashkari, H., Poor Khadem Namin, Z., 2005, Optimizing the orientation of open spaces in the city of Ardabil on climate, Journal ofGeographical Research, No.4, PP. 19-36.
Nielsen, H.M., 2002, Stay Cool: A Design Guide for the Built Environment in Hot Climates, London, UK: James & James Science Publishers Ltd,No. 1, PP. 15-75.
Rizk, A.A. and Henze, G.P., 2010, Improved airflow around multiple rows of buildings in hot arid climates, International Journal of Energy and Buildings, No. 42, PP. 1711-1718.
Salmanian, F., 2012, Design and Climate Simulation of the Activity spaces (Piece of land 9000 m2 Dovlatkhah، range in 19 of Tehran), M.Sc Thesis, Tehran: University of Tehran, Faculty of Geography, Physical Geography Department, PP. 7-100.
Salighe, M., 2004, Modelling of Housing Construction in Accordance with Climatic Factors of Chabahar, Journal of geography and Development, No. 4, PP. 148-169.
Shamsipour, A.A., Salmanian, F., Fathi, H and Setake, F. 2014, Climatic design and assimilation of activity spaces (case study on Soheil residential complex in 19th district of Tehran), International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development,Vol. 5, Lssue1,PP. 61-74.
Toudert, F.A., and Mayer, H, 2007, Effects of asymmetry, galleries, overhanging fac¸ades and vegetation on thermal comfort in urban street canyons, International Journal of Solar Energy , No. 81, PP. 742–754.
Wania, A., Bruse, M, Blond, N. and Weber, C., 2012, Analysing the influence of different street  egetation on traffic-induced particle dispersion using microscale simulations, Journal of Environmental Management, No. 94, PP. 91-101.
Yamada, T., 2005, Numerical simulation of air flows around a city in a coastal region, in: Annual Conference, American Meteorological Society, San Diego, California, No. 1, PP. 20-75.