عنوان مقاله [English]
Climatic comfort and adaptation with weather conditions is very important for human wellbeing. In fact, climatic comfort is a situation in which about 80% of people do feel neither cold nor warm. Temperature comfort is related to temperature balance of human body. The temperature balance is due to biological, spiritual and environmental facts which could control a complicated process of heat transfer between human body and the environment. Climate conditions are one of most important factors which could cause human comforts as well as human health. Climate conditions can also affect life quality, mental power and thinking ability. Accordingly, the potential of human activity is increased due to proper environment, and it is decreased due to hot or cold conditions. Inter-annual variation of weather can influence climatic comfort. In winter, especially in cold regions, natural gas is an important energy source to achieve climatic comforts. The climatic comfort which is due to climatic elements such as temperature, radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed is investigated by international and Iranian experts.
Materials and Methods
In an effort to investigate the effects of climate on the amount of natural gas consumption, we gathered the daily data of climate elements which might affect the temperature comfort, e.g. temperature in degree Celsius, relative humidity in percent, wind speed in meters per second, and sunshine hours, for Zanjan station over a 35 years period (from 21 March 1980 to 21 march, 2016). These data have been gathered from Islamic Republic Meteorological Organization (IRMO). The data of daily consumption of natural gas (in cubic meters) have also been gathered from Gas Department of Zanjan. We have also used MATLAB software in order to organize and test accuracy and homogeneity of the data and also to describe their characters. We have also used Novell, Terjong, and Olegy and SET, PET and PMV indices in graphic forms.
Results and Discussion
Bioclimatic condition of Zanjan is evaluated by Novell index, Terjong, and Olegy plots and the Ryman model indices, e.g. Standard Effective Temperature, Physiological Equivalent Temperature, and Predicted Mean Vote. We have compared all the above-mentioned methods and also their relationship with natural gas consumption. Accordingly, type of Zanjan climate is diagnosed and the comfort and uncomforted situation in daily and hourly scales was calculated. The results of these evaluations are represented in graphic display.
Climatic situation of Zanjan city, especially in terms of elevation and latitude, shows a cold climate. As a result, in order to find the climatic comfort zone, it is essential to use natural gas. We have examined all bioclimatic situations by using all climatic indices and climatic graphs. All indices have indicated that the natural gas consumption is related to weather variation. It also revealed that Standard Effective Temperature is the best index to show this relation relative to other indices.
According to Novell index for Zanjan city, July is the warmest month in the year. As there is no need for natural gas to reach the comfort condition, the average of natural gas consumption is the lowest in comparison with other months of the year. According to Olegy diagram, Zanjan experiences its warmest and coldest months in Tir (June) and Day (January), respectively. The consumption of natural gas revealed that the highest and lowest consumption of natural gas occur in January and July, respectively.
According to the heat sensitivity based on PET, PMV, and SET indices, we have calculated natural gas consumption. It is cleared that the natural gas consumption is in accordance to these indices. The more detailed study and an accurate cooperation between time series of each of the indices and that of natural gas consumption have indicated that Standard Effective Temperature (SET) is the most accurate comfort index in comparison with other indicators.
According to our achievements, the building design process accustomed to the climate not only could produce an environmental adoption, but it could reduce energy consumption. As we have found in current study, the climate plays an effective role in energy consumption in Zanjan city. This could lead to an accustomed building design.
The index Standard Effective Temperature was used to predict natural gas consumption for Zanjan city. It was found that the less the values of the index the more the consumption of natural gas. Accordingly, for each unit reduction in the index, the natural gas consumption in the city will increase by 63100.