ارزیابی روند پارامترهای اقلیمی مؤثر بر تولید بادام در استان آذربایجان غربی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اقلیم ‏شناسی، دانشکدة جغرافیا و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

2 دانشیار اقلیم ‏شناسی، دانشکدة جغرافیا و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

3 دکتری ژئومورفولوژی، دانشکدة جغرافیا و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

چکیده

عناصر آب‏وهوایی نقشی بسیار اساسی در رشد و توسعة گیاهان دارند و از جمله پارامترهای کنترل‏ناپذیر بر کشاورزی محسوب می‏شوند. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی ساختار و روند پارامترهای اقلیمی مؤثر بر تولید بادام در استان آذربایجان غربی است. برای اجرای این پژوهش از داده‏های آب‏وهوایی شش ایستگاه سینوپتیک طی دورة ۱۹۸۶–2015 استفاده شده است. نخست، براساس درجة روز- رشد، فصل رشد بادام برای هریک از ایستگاه‏ها محاسبه شد و سپس شاخص‏های دما و بارش و روند هریک از آن‏ها با استفاده از آزمون من‏- ‏کندال و شیب سنس استخراج شد. درنهایت، میزان نیاز آبی برای هریک از مراحل فنولوژی محصول برآورد شد. نتایج بیانگر این بود که میانگین دمای فصل رشد در محدودة 5/0 تا 1 درجة سانتی‏گراد در سال دارای روند افزایشی است. خروجی شاخص‏های دمایی نیز نشان داد که پیرانشهر، مهاباد، و خوی مناطق مساعد برای کشت بادام‏اند. از طرف دیگر، کاهش قابل ملاحظة شاخص‏های بارشی در همة ایستگاه‏ها در طول مراحل دوم و سوم رشد مشاهده شد. به‏طور کلی، با توجه به نتایج مطالعه، با افزایش دمای فصل رشد و کاهش بارش، نیاز آبی محصول (ETC) در مرحلة دوم و سوم رشد افزایش یافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Assessment of climate parameters trend affecting almond production in West Azerbaijan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • elaheh asgari 1
  • GholamAbbas Fallah-Ghalhari 2
  • javad jamalabadi 3
1 Iran-Khorasan razavi-Sabzevar-Hakim sabzevari univercity- Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences
2 Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
3 دانشکده جغرافیا و علوم محیطی دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری
چکیده [English]

An Assessment of climate parameters trend affecting almond production in West Azerbaijan province

Introduction: The amount of agricultural production has a high correlation with atmospheric precipitations and the suitability of climatic conditions Knowing the factors that affect the plant developmental stages and the plant's sensitivity to the fluctuations of these factors makes it possible to make an appropriate decision for cultivation Provides. Plant tolerance thresholds are limited in relation to each meteorological parameter and any abnormality in these parameters can have a significant direct and indirect impact on agricultural production. Considering the important effects of climate factors on the yield of agricultural products, the introduction of indicators and agricultural variables that have the most impact in this regard seems necessary. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of meteorological parameters on almond yield in West Azarbaijan province.
Materials and methods: For this research, the weather data of 6 synoptic stations of Azarbayjan province during 2014 - 1985 period have been used. First, based on the growth degree day , almond growth season was calculated for each station, then the seasonal and temperature indices of temperature and precipitation, and the trends of each of them were extracted using the MK test and the slope of the senses. Finally, the amount of water needed for each phases of the product was estimated. The method used to estimate the reference evapotranspiration has been based on the FAO-Penman-Monteith method.
Results and discussion: The results indicated that the average temperature of the growing season in the range of 0.5 to 1 ° C in the year has an increasing trend. This is due to the increase of the maximum indexes of the growth season, the number of days with a maximum temperature of 90 °, the average number of days with The maximum temperature is related to the 10th percentile (Tmax <10) and the number of days with a minimum temperature of less than 10k percentile (Tmin <10). Significant decrease in rainfall indices (rainfall rainfall season, maximum daily rainfall, number of rainy days and annual rainfall recorded on very wet days) was observed at all stations. Due to the increase in the temperature of the growing season and the reduction of rainfall, the product's water requirement ETC) has grown in the second and third stages.
Conclusion: Climatic recognition and study of climatological needs of plants are the most important factors in production. The output of the index of growth-dgree day indicates that almond flowering at Mahabad station is earlier and starts at Takab station due to having higher altitudes and distances from the sea later than other regions. The shortest growth season for almond phenology is Takab with 207 days and the longest period of Mahabad with 250 days. Based on the Climatic recognition and study of climatological needs of plants are the most important factors in production. Based on the results of the study of temperature indices in West Azarbaijan province, it is possible to obtain a favorable climate for the cultivation of almond in the studied stations of Mahabad, Khoy and Piranshahr. It should be noted that including the limitations of the Piranshahr station, having a number of days with a minimum temperature of less than 2 degrees Celsius at flowering stage, due to the presence of the Mediterranean and its high mountain range, which should be taken to prevent spring frost to the late flowering cultivar. Also, Takab and Mako have the lowest temperature indices (the minimum freezing period, the number of days with a minimum temperature of less than 2 ° C at the flowering stage and the highest number of days with a minimum temperature of less than 0 °); hence, with regard to early flowering This product is not a good place to produce almonds in comparison with other fruits and are susceptible to late spring frost. The results of precipitation indices indicate a significant reduction of this parameter at all stations during the second and third stages of almond growth. Since this time coincides with the warm period and the increase in the number of days with maximum temperature, this dehydration during the main stages of growth has increased the moisture stress and this disrupted the growth process and led to a change in the size of the brain and decrease in efficiency The fruit is. Evapotranspiration analysis also shows that demand for water, especially in the second and third stages, has increased, hence, according to the stated content, the water needs of the product should be managed through water control and other environmental studies. Based on the results of the study of temperature indices in West Azarbaijan province, it is possible to obtain a favorable climate for the cultivation of almond in the studied stations of Mahabad, Khoy and Piranshahr. It should be noted that including the limitations of the Piranshahr station, having a number of days with a minimum temperature of less than 2 degrees Celsius at flowering stage, due to the presence of the Mediterranean and its high mountain range, which should be taken to prevent spring frost to the late flowering cultivar. Also, Takab and Mako have the lowest temperature indices (the minimum freezing period, the number of days with a minimum temperature of less than 2 ° C at the flowering stage and the highest number of days with a minimum temperature of less than 0 °); hence, with regard to early flowering This product is not a good place to produce almonds in comparison with other fruits and are susceptible to late spring frost. The results of precipitation indices indicate a significant reduction of this parameter at all stations during the second and third stages of almond growth. Since this time coincides with the warm period and the increase in the number of days with maximum temperature, this dehydration during the main stages of growth has increased the moisture stress and this disrupted the growth process and led to a change in the size of the brain and decrease in efficiency The fruit is. Evapotranspiration analysis also shows that demand for water, especially in the second and third stages, has increased, hence, according to the stated content, the water needs of the product should be managed through water control and other environmental studies.

Keywords: climate-agricultural indices, water requirement almonds, trend analysis, Western Azerbaijan

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: climate-agricultural indices
  • water requirement almonds
  • Trend Analysis
  • Western Azerbaijan
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