بررسی تأثیر گردوغبار بر روند کمّی و کیفی رشد نیشکر واریته CP57-614

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه پیام نور

2 مدرس گروه معماری دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد مسجدسلیمان

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اقلیم شناسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، اصفهان

چکیده

طوفان‎های گردوغبار یکی از معضلات محیطی در غرب و جنوب غربی ایران به‎شمار می‎رود که تأثیر زیادی بر محصولات کشاورزی دارد. هدف این پژوهش مطالعۀ اثر گردوغبار روی یک محصول صنعتی کشاورزی (نیشکر) است. برای این امر، مطالعات آزمایشی در مزارع شرکت توسعۀ نیشکر واحد دعبل خزاعی استان خوزستان در سطح دوونیم هکتار، از ماه مرداد تا آذر 1391 انجام گرفت. مزارع آزمایشی شامل دو تیمار شست‎وشوی برگ‎ها و عدم شست‎وشوی برگ‎ها در یک دورۀ کشت انجام شد. نتایج آزمون تی. استیودنت به‎دست‎آمده درخصوص عملکرد کیفی نیشکر، نشان‎دهندۀ این است که تیمارهای مورد آزمایش اختلاف معناداری را در سطح 1درصد برای صفت پیوریتی (درجۀ خلوص) و در سطح 5 درصد برای میزان شکر دریافت‎شده و کیفیت نی داشته است که گویای برتری تیمار شست‎وشو است. در خلال فرایند تیمارهای آزمایش، اختلاف معناداری روی عوامل کمّی رشد گیاه نیشکر به‎دست نیامده است که بیانگر عدم تأثیر در افزایش عملکرد است. بررسی رابطه بین مقدار نیتروژن و کلروفیل پهنک برگ نشان داد، پدیدۀ گردوغبار بر کاهش نیتروژن‎سازی محصول و درنهایت روی روند عملکرد کیفی گیاه نیشکر تأثیر منفی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Dust Effect on the Quantitative and Qualitative Growth of Sugarcane Varieties CP57-614

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Ali Arvin(spanani) 1
  • Sedigheh Cheraghi 2
  • Shahram Cheraghi 3
1 Assistant Prof. in Geography, Dep. of Payame Noor University
2 Instructor in Dep. of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Masjed Soleiman Branch
3 Student of Climatology, Payame Noor University, Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
One of the natural disasters that affected Khozestan province's is the phenomenon undesirable
of dust due to its geographical location and its neighborhood with a large expanse of desert
regions. When dust sits on leaf crops, it can reduce the amount of light absorption and
photosynthesis and the growth and production will suffer loss consequently (Abdali Dehdezi
1390: 19). The effects of dust on leaf surfaces are done in different ways:
a) Impact on the process of photosynthesis in plants; Reduction in photosynthetic leaf
surface is a function of light intensity reduction. Hirano Takashi (2003: 275) studies in Japan
show that plants exposed to dust are the major sources of risk facing chronic photosynthesis and
consequently reduce the growth face. The 10-5g of dust particles per square meter of leaf area
can reduce photosynthesis significantly.
b) The effects of dust on leaf stomata: Dust reduces stomata conductance due to stomata
closure. The effect of dust on reduce the stomata conductance would be greater at time that the
size of dust particles is smaller. Dust particles with a diameter less than (0.05mm) caused
disruption of the mechanisms and functions of the openings leaves.
c) The effects of dust on leaf temperature: Dust increase leaf temperature of 4-2°C.
Because of dust on the leaf surface will absorb more short waves. Increase in temperature of 3-
2°C increase in light respiration of leaf in plants.
d) The effect of dust on the amount of light hitting the plant: The light intensity and day
length effect on the growth and production. Water absorption and evaporation is proportional to
the light intensity completely. Mvchv and colleagues (1993) showed that during the linear
growth phase, the accumulation of biomass per hectare is linearly correlated with solar radiation
received.
Khozestan as one of the major poles of agricultural province, the epicenter of the injury is
the loss of natural plants. Damage to the agricultural sector in this province, will account for a
major share. Sugarcane crop with a cover nearly 80 thousand hectares of land under cultivation
in this province are one of the vulnerable sectors. Thus the objectives of this study are:
1. Survey of relationship between quantities of sugarcane yield (weight of single, stem
density per unit area and product yield) and dust.
2. Survey of relationship between the quality of sugarcane (Pol, Brix, purity, recovery and
quality of white sugar cane) and dust.
3. Survey of relationship between leaf chlorophyll amount and dust density.
4. Survey on interactions between nitrogen and chlorophyll.
Methodology
The location of field experiment was Da'bal Khazaei Agro Industry Co. The experiment carried
on varieties 614 CP57-L09-06. Soil type was Silt loam. The test community consists of washing
the leaves and failure to wash the leaves that carried out after dust occurrence each with 21
repetitions on each community. Each plot had 7 Farrow. To eliminate the side effects caused by
dusts from car traffic on the farm road and irrigation, farm plots was at a distance of 20 m from
the edge of farm. Plot size was segmentation 200 sqm for each treatment. Chlorophyll leaves
were by chlorophyll meter by 502-Spad Minolta models. This process is performed after each
dust. The plots should be washed. This process carried out after each wash. Plots in each phase
were washed with car wash tank. Cane growth and Lamina sheaths nitrogen and moisture was
measured each time after vigorous dust at an intervals period time.
Results and Discussion
Results on quality performance show that there are significant different on level of %1 for
purity and on level of %5 for getting amount of sugar and straw quality for test treatments that
indicate on excellence of treatments wash. On the other hand survey of treatment means also
show that washing treatment is superior. Based on the results of treatments, there are no
significant differences on quantitative factors. Student t-test showed that there is no effect of the
washing operation factors on increased performance. Survey of relationship between amount of
chlorophyll and dust density show that student t-test were significant at 1% for both treatments.
This means that the presence of dust on the leaves is effective on chlorophyll readings. The
amount of chlorophyll in treatments wash the leaves are higher than failure to wash the leaves
consistently that it due to impaired gas exchange system, carbon dioxide and water vapor and
oxygen respectively. The stomata closure with decreasing in sunshine hours has slowing the rate
of photosynthesis. This process disturbances the gas exchange and download of sun light that
lead to reduce in photosynthesis and yellow leaves. Finally, it shows as the poor quality of cane
juice.
The relationship was examined between nitrogen and chlorophyll content of flag leaves.
According to the requirements of sugarcane to nitrogen during the growing season, the amount
of nitrogen fertilizer is very important. So, we can by measuring of chlorophyll in the plant to
estimate the nitrogen concentration. In table and graph, the correlation between chlorophyll and
nitrogen lamina clearly shows that this correlation is statistically significant at the 5% level.
Using the linear equation and only by reading chlorophyll Machine, we able to achieve nitrogen
levels in each stage of growth.
Conclusion
The results of experiments on wash the leaves and failure to wash the leaves treatments show
that washing treatments had higher purity and higher concentration of sugar and straw quality is
better. Thus, dust has a negative effect on cane quality (yield and quality of sugar cane). Dust
had been affected on the amount of sunlight received by the leaves. Chlorophyll content in
leaves has been decreased in the occurrence of dust. So, absorbed nitrogen also has been
decreased. Finally, yield quality is reduced consequently. However, dust has no negative effect
on quantitative growth of sugarcane because many factors affect quantitative performance of
sugarcane.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dust
  • Qualitative Performance
  • Quantitative Performance
  • Sugarcane