تعیین قابلیت و توان بوم‌شناختی شهرستان رودان به‌منظور کاربری طبیعت‌گردی با استفاده از روش تصمیم‌گیری چند‌معیاره

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس برنامه‌ریزی و بودجه معاونت برنامه‌ریزی استانداری هرمزگان، معاونت برنامه‌ریزی استانداری هرمزگان

2 کارشناس‌ارشد محیط‌زیست بندرعباس، ادارۀ کل منابع طبیعی و آبخیزداری استان هرمزگان

چکیده

این مقاله به بررسی ظرفیت و توان بوم‌شناختی شهرستان رودان برای کاربری طبیعت‌گردی و انتخاب مناسب‌ترین مکان‌های توسعۀ آن با استفاده از روش تصمیم‌گیری چند‌معیاره[1] می‌پردازد. برای این منظور، با شناسایی 11 معیار و 36 زیرمعیار و ارزیابی آنها با استفاده از روش دلفی، 9 معیار و 28 زیرمعیار به‌عنوان معیارهای مورد بررسی انتخاب شد. سپس با استفاده از روش تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی[2] و با بهره‌گیری از نرم‌افزار [3]EC معیارهای انتخاب‌شده وزن‌دهی و اولویت‌بندی شد و در نهایت، نقشۀ لایه‌های مکانی برای معیارهای گزینش‌شده با استفاده از نرم‌افزار ArcGIS10 در محیط GIS تهیه و پس از اعمال ضریب اهمیت، روی‌هم‌گذاری و تلفیق و مناطق مستعد توسعۀ طبیعت‌گردی شناسایی شد. نتایج نشان داد که مناطق دارای درجۀ توان اندک با 5/141323 هکتار و 4/43 درصد از کل اراضی، بیشترین مساحت اراضی را در شهرستان رودان به‌خود اختصاص داده است. 1/9 درصد از مساحت کل شهرستان شامل 3/29711 هکتار دارای توان زیاد، 9/57327 هکتار از سطح شهرستان معادل 6/17 درصد دارای توان متوسط و حدود 4/97344 هکتار معادل 9/29 درصد آن، اراضی فاقد توان برای توسعة طبیعت‌گردی است.



[1]. Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM)


[2]. Analytical Hierarchy process(AHP)


[3]. Expert Choice

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining Capability and Ecological Potential of Roudan City for Ecotourism using Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Shakerizade 1
  • Fatemeh Mahdavi 2
1 Bachelor of Planning and Budget Planning, Hormozgan Governorship, Governor Planning Department
2 Master of Environment, Department of Natural Resources and Watershed, Hormozgan Province
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Tourism is a process which has been existed with all its special forms from the ancient times so that the mental, cultural, social and economic demands of the human beings can be met. One of the growing branches of this industry is named as ecotourism. Nowadays, tourism has become one of the main levers of economic and social development in many regions of the world. Tourism in the regions should be based on sustainable development to preserve the nature as well as conserve historical and cultural heritage of that region and the intellectual application of the natural resources. Ecotourism development aligned with eco-environmental potential of the land as an effective tool and approach plays a major role in sustainable development, promoting the life standards of human society and maintaining the natural equilibrium. Assessment of ecological potential is an effective step and suitable tool in order to direct the present activities and functions performed for the land toward a sustainable development. One of the ways for identifying and evaluating the ecological capacity of each region is application of the Multi Attribute Decision Making method (MADM) and comparison of other indices. This method has identified the sites with ecotourism potential in the city of Roudan and, ultimately, suggests the appropriate locations for ecotourism development in the city.
 
Materials and Methods
The study area in this research is the Roudan city, where located in the east of Hormozgan Province. It is located at the geographical coordinates ranging from 56°50ˊ E to 57°29ˊ E and from 27°5ˊ N to 27°59ˊ N. This research is considered as one of the descriptive studies and of applied type in terms of the relationship. To do this research, first of all, different parameters used to select these sites were gathered by means of a documentary review from different local and foreign authorities.  Therefore, at this point, 11 major parameters and 36 sub-parameters were selected. The parameters were assessed using Delphi technique and the final attributes of ecotourism development including 9 major parameters and 28 secondary parameters were identified and formulated. In the next step, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and corresponding questionnaire, we determined the relative weights of major parameters and sub-parameters. After the parameters were identified, they were incorporated with each other to find the appropriate regions for tourism development.
 
Results and Discussion
The results of this study, as an attempt for reviewing the parameters experienced in Iran and throughout the world, demonstrated that both parameters and sub-parameters extracted from different resources are applied for identification of the appropriate regions for ecotourism in the city of Roudan. The study showed that the natural recreational resources have 77% of relative weight and the highest degree of importance. In practice, 56.4 % of the experts and respondents have identified this parameter as one with the very high level of importance, 25.6 % of the experts identified it as the parameter with high importance to select ecotourism appropriate regions amongst the natural ecosystems. Based on the obtained results, the regions with low potential of 141323.5 hectares and 43.4 % of the total lands have most of the land areas in Roudan City. About 9.1 % of the total area of the city including 29711.3 hectares has high potential for ecotourism development, 57327.9 hectares from the surface of the city, equivalent to 17.6 percent, has average potential and about 97344.4 hectares, equivalent to 29.9 %,do not have  the potential.
 
Conclusion
According to the results, it is clear that the central regions and the regions close to perennial streams have the most potential for ecotourism application. The reason for this is the concentration of tourism targeted villages of Abnama, Ziarat Seyed Soltan Mohammad, Ziaratali and so on in this district of the city. The map of the suitable regions for tourism development in the city of Roudan indicates consistency of high potential regions with the current utilization including the pilgrimage and tourism status of Abnema and Seyed Soltan Mohammad villages as tourism sites and also the villages amongst the high capacity regions of the obtained map. In addition, the existence of natural resources in the city identified the most important attributes of the regions. Amongst the most important resources and facilities of the city, the existence of perennial streams of Roudan and Jaghin is considered as important factors for tourist attraction. It can be suggested that the researchers in the future study the ecological potential and capacity of other regions of Hormozgan province in terms of the ecotourism applications.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ecological strength
  • Ecotourism
  • Geographical Information System (GIS)
  • Hormozgan
  • multi attributes decision making
  • Roudan
  1. اردکانی، ط. (1386).« تهیه و تدوین برنامة گردشگری پایدار در خلیج چابهار بر اساس معیارهای زیست‌محیطی». پایان‌نامة کارشناسی‌ارشد مهندسی منابع طبیعی محیط‌زیست. تهران: دانشگاه تهران. دانشکدة منابع طبیعی.
  2. بحرینی، س.ح. و جهانی‌مقدم، ح. (1383). «استفاده از توان‌های بالقوة مناطق جهت توسعة گردشگری پارک‌موزة نفت مسجد سلیمان». محیط‌شناسی. ش 35. ص 33-52.
  3. پیرمحمدی، ز.، فقهی، ج.، زاهدی‌امیری، ق. و شریفی، م. (1387). «کاربرد GIS در ارزیابی توان اکولوژیک برای کاربری توریسم». چهارمین همایش ملی زمین‌شناسی و محیط‌زیست. دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اسلامشهر.
  4. دانه‌کار، ا.، محمودی، ب. و مصدقی، ر. (1385). «تدوین ضوابط طراحی و توسعة فعالیت‌های گردشگری طبیعی (در لکه‌ها) گزارش دوم تدوین و معرفی معیارها و ضوابط توسعة سایت طبیعت‌گردی و پایش». مطالعات سند ملی گردشگری.
  5. رنجبری، ر.، دانه‌کار، ا. و ریاضی، ب. (1388). «ارزیابی توان زیست‌محیطی پارک ملی ساحلی- دریایی نایبند در استان بوشهر به‌منظور استفاده‌های تفرجی». علوم و تکنولوژی محیط‌زیست. دورة 11. ش 4.
  6. سلمان‌ماهینی، ع.ر.، ریاضی، ب.، نعیمی، ب.، بابایی‌کفاکی، س. و جوادی‌لاریجانی، ع. (1388). «ارزیابی توان طبیعت‌گردی شهرستان بهشهر بر مبنای روش ارزیابی چند‌معیاره با استفاده از GIS». علوم و تکنولوژی محیط‌زیست. دورة 11. ش 1.
  7. قدسی‌پور، س.ح. (1387). فرایند تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی (AHP). تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر.
  8. مخدوم. م. (1381). شالوده آمایش سرزمین. تهران: مؤسسه انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
    1. Ardekani, T. (2007). "Provision and compilation of a sustainable tourism plan in Chabahar’s gulf based on the environmental parameters". Thesis of environment’s natural resources engineering master’s degree. Natural resources faculty. Tehran: University of Tehran. (In Persian).
    2. Babaie-Kafaky, S., Mataji, A. and Ahmadi-Sani, A. (2009). "Ecological Capability Assessment for Multiple-Use in Forest Areas Using GIS- Based Multiple Criteria Decision Making Approach", American Journal of Environmental Sciences. Vol. 5: pp. 714-721.
      1. Bahreini, S.H. and Jahani-Moghaddam, H.R. (2004). "Benefiting from the potential capacities of the regions for tourism development of the Oil Museum Park of Masjed Soleiman". Ecology. No. 35. pp. 33-50. (In Persian).
      2. Bender, M., Selin, S. and Deng, J. (2008). "Development of criteria and indicator for evaluating forest– based ecotourism destinations: A Delphi study". Thesis of West Virginia University. Available from: wvu.edu
      3. Bhattacharya, P. and Kumari, S. (2004). Application of Criteria and Indicator for Sustainable Ecotourism: Scenario under Globalization. Abstract and Paper Submitted for the IASCP Bi-Annual Conference on "The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risk and Opportunities" at Oaxaca. Mexico from 9-14 August. 2004.
      4. Brown, K., Adger, W.N., Tompkins, E., Bacon, P., Shim, D. and Young, K. (2001). "Trade –off analysis for marine protected area management". Journal of Ecological Economics. Vol. 37. pp. 417-434.
        1. Danehkar, A., Mahmoudi, B. and Mosadeghi, R. (2006). "Formulation of principles of ecotourism activities’ design and development (in spots) second report of formulation and introduction of parameters and principles for developing and measuring development of ecotourism site". Tourism national deed’s studies. Final edition. (In Persian).
        2. Effat, H and Hegazy, M.N. (2009). "Cartographic modeling and multi criteria evaluation for exploring potentials for tourism development in the Suez governorate, Egypt". Society and Environment. Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences. Available online: www.sciencedirect.com.
        3. Fletcher, S. (2001). "Planning policy and development guidelines for ecotourism development within the northern rivers New South Wales region", Prepared by nature Tourism Task Force. p. 51.
        4. Ghodsi-pour, S.H. (2008). Analytical hierarchical process (AHP). Tehran: AmirKabir University of Technology Center. (In Persian).
        5. Kitsiou, D., Coccossis, H.m. and Karydisa, M. (2002). "Multi- dimensional evaluation and ranking of coastal areas using GIS and multiple criteria choice methods". Journal of The science of Total Environment. Vol. 284. pp. 1-17.
        6. Makhdoum, M. (2002). Land use planning foundation. Tehran: university of Tehran Pressn. Fifth print. (In Persian).
        7. Nouri, J.; Danehkar, A. and Sharifi-pour, R. (2007). "evaluation of ecotourism potential in northern coastline of the Persian Gulf". Environmental Geology. Vol. 55. pp. 681-686.
        8. Ok, K. (2005). "Multiple Criteria Activity Selection for Ecotourism Planning in Igneada". Turk J Agric For. Vol. 30. pp. 153-164. Available online: www.sciencedirect.com.
        9. Phua M. and Minowa, M. (2004). "A GIS-based multi-criteria decision making approach to forest conservation planning at a landscape scale: a case study in the Kinabalu Area, Sabah, Malaysia". Landscape and Urban Planning. Vol. 71. pp. 207–222. Available online: www.sciencedirect.com.
        10. Pir-mohammadi, Z., Feghhi, J., Zahedi-Amiri, Gh. and Sharifi, M. (2008). "The application of GIS in evaluation of ecological potential for tourism application". fourth geology and environment national forum in Islamic Azad University. Islam-shahr branch. (In Persian).
          1. Ranjbari, R., Danehkar, A. and Riazi, B. (2009). "Evaluation of the ecological potential of  Nayband’s offshore-onshore national park in province of Boushehr". Recreational and environmental science & technology purposes. Vol. 11. No. 4. (In Persian).
          2. Salman-Mahini, A.R., Riyazi, B., Naeemi, B. and Babaie-Kafaki, S. (2009). "Evaluating the ecotourism potential of Behshahr city based on the multi-attribute evaluation method using GIS". Environmental science and technology. Vol. 11. No. 1. (In Persian).
          3. Tsaur S., Lin, Y.Ch. and Lin, J.H. (2006). "Evaluating ecotourism sustainability from the integrated perspective of the recourse, community and tourism". Tourism Management. Vol. 27. pp. 640-653.