نگاره‌های ساحلی و قواعد ژئومورفیک سکونتگاهی (مطالعۀ موردی: ساحل شمالی خلیج فارس)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشکدة علوم جغرافیایی و برنامه‏ریزی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 استاد گروه جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشکدة علوم جغرافیایی و برنامه‏ریزی، دانشگاه اصفهان

3 دانشیار گروه سنجش از دور و GIS، دانشکدة فنی و مهندسی، ‏دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی یزد

چکیده

چیدمان فضای سکونتگاه‏ها دارای منطق خاصی است و از قوانین ویژه‏ای هم تبعیت می‏کند. از جمله نگاره‏های ژئومورفولوژیک، که میراث تغییرات سطح تراز آب دریاست و جمعیت کثیری از مردم دنیا در آن سکونت گزیده‏اند، نگاره‏های ساحلی است. براساس مطالعات اخیر، خلیج‏فارس از هجده‏هزار سال پیش تراز 70 متر بالاتر از سطح امروزی را هم تجربه کرده و حاصل چنین بالاآمدگی و رسوب‏گذاری دریایی دشت‏های ساحلی است که در اصطلاح پدیدارشناسی به آن نگارة دریایی اطلاق می‏شود. آنچه برای یک ژئومورفولوژیست اهمیت پیدا می‏کند درک تحلیل‏های ژئومورفولوژیکی قواعد چیدمان این سکونتگاه‏هاست. نگارندگان در این مقاله کوشیده‏اند، ضمن طرح مفاهیم جدیدی در دانش ژئومورفولوژی، بر اساس روش تحلیل گفتمان و تفسیر پدیدارشناختی، به استخراج منطق ریاضی چیدمان فضا‏ی سکونتگاهی در سواحل خلیج‏فارس مبادرت کنند. حاصل بررسی‏های به‏عمل‏آمده با این روش نشان می‏دهد که:

منطق چیدمان سکونتگاه‏های نگارة دریایی در خوزستان با نگاره‏های ساحلی به‏ سمت شرق تفاوت دارد.
سکونتگاه‏های شهری در نگارة دریایی خوزستان از قانون بیفورکاسیون تبعیت می‏کنند.
سکونتگاه‏های روستایی در نگارة دریایی خوزستان از قاعدة مآندرینگ وجه محدب تبعیت می‏کنند.
سکونتگاه‏های ساحلی در نگارة دریایی بوشهر- بندرعباس از قاعدة frequency- Magnitude تراس‏های دریایی تبعیت می‏کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Coastal Features and Settlement Geomorphic Rules (Case study: Northern Coast of Persian Gulf)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Nematollahi 1
  • Mohammad Hossain Ramesht 2
  • Seyed Ali Almodaresi 3
1 PhD Candidate in Physical Geography, Faculty of Geography and Planning, University of Isfahan, Iran
2 Professor of Physical Geography, Faculty of Geography and Planning, University of Isfahan, Iran
3 Associate Professor of RS & GIS, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Thesettlement space has certain logic and rules. The Persian Gulf was 70 meters higher than today sea level. The result of this uplift is the coastal plains which in phenomenological term is called marine context. It is important for a geomorphologist to understand the geomorphological analysis of the rules of the residence in marine context. This study attempted to raise new concepts in geomorphology based on discourse analysis and a phenomenological interpretation to derive the mathematical logic of residence on the shores of the Persian Gulf. The results obtained by this method show that urban residence in the marine context of Khuzestan follow Bifurcation rule, rural residence in the marine context of Khuzestan follow meandering convex rule, and the coastal residence in the marine context of Bushehr - Bandar Abbas follow frequency.
Materials and methods 
The data used in this study includes five factors of climate, temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, pressure and evaporation to prepare land context, data from Delaware, GPCC and NCEP / NCAR of global networks. These were processed in programming environment. For homogeneity of spatial resolution, conventional method of resampling was used. The output of this operation was matrices with monthly intervals and 0.5 × 0.5 separation of geographic latitude. After preparing the data, they were descaled and then standardized layers were prepared using linear relation. The next step was preparation of the results of the matrix difference in ArcMap; raster analysis was conducted by combining layers to obtain the final map. After recognition of two distinct texture using Hillier’s Space Syntax, analysis of urban layout and the arrangement of drainage networks of Karkheh and Karun rivers were extracted to determine the extent of rural civilization. The village layout was determined using river meanders. In the second image, the layout logic of coastal population centers was specified with coastal terraces 5, 10, 25 and 50 meters and the logical arrangement of this population were assessed against them.  
Results and discussion
The logic syntax in marine context is associated with sea water level changes in the Persian Gulf and Karkheh and Karun rivers. To explain and extract the syntax logic of residence centers on the marine context, we initially specified the networks of Karun and Karkheh rivers, based on Hillier’s syntax logic. In addition, the organization was compared with residence centers. This comparison showed that urban areas are located only in places where rivers have split. To analyze the behavior of the river in connection with rural residence, meanders of Karkheh and Karun rivers were identified. By contrasting rural residence, it was attempted to explain the space identity of each village location with regard to the fluvial meanders. The results showed that the villages in the marine context are settled along the slopes of meanders convexity. The concavities of the rivers have no remnants of residence. To achieve the coastal context syntax logic, the relationship between population centers and coastal terraces were examined through matching the residence spot layers and marine terraces.
The analysis of terraces 5, 10, 25 and 50 meters has indicated that there is a specific relationship between the number of population centers and their population with the distance of the terraces to the coastline and their arrangement along the marine terraces. As the distance of the population centers from the beach are changed largely in number and size; in other words, spatial syntax logic is consistent with Newton's law of gravity inverse.
Conclusion
From the discussion provided, it can be concluded that marine Context defines the syntax rules of settlements and the mathematical rules of layout logic in the area of Iran.
* The first mathematical rule states that marine areas impose Bifurcation rule on river behaviors (Karkheh and Karun). This indicates that urban residence is formed in the division spot.
* The second identifying rule of rivers in marine area is known as river meander which starts to meandering as they enter into marine context. Each wave has a convex side and a concave side. The convex face of wave creates a special place identity that leads to a social organization.
* The results of marine context indicate another rule for the logic of residence centers’ layout that can be summarized as the frequency- magnitude rule.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phenomenological
  • marine terrace
  • space syntax
  • Persian Gulf
  • land-context
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