عنوان مقاله [English]
Dusts are referred to as aerosol particles that are made up of different sources of land and humanization, and after which time, again, they fall on the surface due to their size and density (Salman Zadeh et al., 2012). This phenomenon can damage infrastructures, telecommunications and agricultural products and affect transport through reduced visibility and cause a lot of economic damage. (Song et al 2007., Cao et al 2016). The purpose of this study is measuring and spatial analysis of the city of Tehran in a one-year statistical period.
Materials and methods
In this research, we used the laboratory method to measure falling dust, collecting dust using Marble Dust Collector. For this purpose, the falling dust was collected using a Marble Dust Collector in 28 stations in Tehran during the statistical period. In order to analyze the spatial distribution of dust, dust was collected from 28 dust collecting stations, and Tehran PM10 data taken from the air quality control company, the number of construction urban under construction in Tehran were obtained from Tehran Municipality Organization, mean maximum wind speed parameters, average relative humidity,days of rainfall above 5 mm,the average temperature of Tehran taken from the country's meteorological organization in the one-year statistical period (1/10/96 - 30/9/97) to enter the Arc Map10.5 environment and preparing the desired layers Were prepared. Statistical analysis of the data showed that Dust collected, pm10 and the number of running construction projects have regional (trend) behavior. Therefore, Universal trend is better suited.
Due to the high preconditions for stagnation use of Universal trend In the area with fewer meteorological stations (Chitgar, Geophysics, Mehrabad and Shemiran) Universal trend is not applicable, Therefore, the IDW method was selected for climatic parameters. Also, the vegetation cover and factories file Shapes were taken and by analyzing Euclidean distance of each of these complications in GIS for Tehran, there impact on the dust in each area were considered. Then all the layers were weighed to determine the weights using the Reclassify tool. Then, using Expert Choice software, we compared all the layers two by two till estimate the value of each layer relative to the other layer. We multiplied the values obtained at each level. We transferred all layers to the Fuzzy Overlay tool. And draw up the final map of the spatial analysis of falling dust in Tehran city using the Gama 0.9 function. Also, daily speed and wind direction data were received from the Meteorological Organization of the country during the one-year statistical period, (30/9/97- 1/10/96). And with the help of the WRPLOT software for statistical analysis and the location of the wind, the windrose was drawn.
Results and discussion
The results of computations performed on the data obtained from the collecting of falling dust in Tehran showed that the weight of falling dust in the winter of 1396 is 18943.5 tons, in the spring of 1397 it is equivalent to 27119.5 tons, in the summer of 1397 it is equivalent to 17111.2 tons and in the fall of 1397 it is equivalent to 23002.3 tons. Also, the results showed that the highest falling dust was collected in spring, autumn, winter and summer, respectively. The spatial analysis map of Tehran's falling dust is a combination of 9 layers, based on the weight assigned to each layer. The results showed that the highest amount of dust in the winter of 1396 was found in west of Tehran. We had the lowest amount of falling dust in the north and northeast (regions 1 and 4). In the spring, summer and autumn of 1397, the halo of the most falling dust was displaced slightly eastward and settled in the southwest. The lowest amount of dusts in these seasons was located in the north and northeast. The halo with the lowest amount of dust falling has expanded further in the autumn than spring and summer.
The results of this study showed that the spatial distribution of falling dust varies in different seasons. Which shows that the source of falling dust in the city of Tehran is not uniform throughout the year. Field precise surveys have shown that the increase in falling dust in different parts of Tehran is directly related to urban construction. So that in the statistical year of the study, construction and subsequent falling dust has been less in eastern Tehran than its west and this increase is also associated with pm10. The largest amount of pm10 was reported from the west and southwest, which simultaneously collected the highest amount of falling dust. The highest density of factories and the lowest vegetation density are in these areas. The climatic factors also contributed to these conditions. So that, It was reported that the highest number of rainy days to exceed 5 mm was reported in north and north east of Tehran, where the lowest amount of dust was collected. And the highest average temperature in different seasons is reported from Southwest of Tehran, which has the highest amount of falling dust in spring, summer and autumn. But in winter climate conditions were slightly different from other seasons. So that, the highest relative humidity reported in other seasons from the West has been reported from north and northeast this season. The dust collected in winter is higher in the west than in the southwest. But the average maximum wind speed, which is in the west and south, is in the winter, spring and autumn to the west and southwest Which is from sand quarts of Quds, Shahriar, and Malard cities, especially the sandy-sand dune areas and abandoned agricultural land in Baharestan, Islam-Shahr and Robat-Karim, then dust from these areas enters Tehran west. In addition, the wind disperses the dusts generated by construction around the city. In the summer, in addition to the west and southwest, there is wind for north and south east. The northern wind comes from Shemiranat, bringing fresh air to the north and north-east of Tehran. The southeast wind passes from the Pakdasht sand and cement factories in Tehran and the abandoned agricultural land of Varamin and contains dust. The low wind speed in these areas gives more time to hangs off more particles. And of course, climatic conditions with the lowest relative humidity, the highest temperature, and a lack of rainfall above 5 mm also help to pollute the southern part of Tehran.
Spatial analysis, Sediment trap, Tehran City, falling dust